SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Akhwale WS, Lum JK, Kaneko A et al. (2004) Anemia and malaria at different altitudes in the western highlands of Kenya. Acta Tropica 91, 167175.
  • Ameneshewa B & Service MW (1996) The relationship between female body size and survival rate of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 10, 170172.
  • Beier JC, Perkins PV, Wirtz RA et al. (1987) Field evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite detection in anopheline mosquitoes from Kenya. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 36, 459468.
  • Beier JC, Asiago CM, Onyango FK & Koros JK (1988) ELISA absorbance cut-off method affects malaria sporozoite rate determination in wild Afrotropical Anopheles. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 2, 259264.
  • Bødker R, Akida J, Shayo D et al. (2003) Relationship between altitude and intensity of malaria transmission in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Journal of Medical Entomology 40, 706717.
  • Brooker S, Clarke S, Njagi JK et al. (2004) Spatial clustering of malaria and associated risk factors during an epidemic in a highland area of western Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9, 757766.
  • Burkot TR, Williams JL & Schneider I (1984) Identification of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes by a double antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 33, 783788.
  • Charlwood JD, Vij R & Billingsley PF (2000) Dry season refugia of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in a dry savannah zone of east Africa. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 62, 726732.
  • Clements AN & Paterson GD (1981) The analysis of mortality and survival rates in wild populations of mosquitoes. Journal of Applied Ecology 18, 373399.
  • Collins FH, Mendez MA, Rasmussen MO et al. (1987) A ribosomal RNA gene probe differentiates member species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 37, 3741.
  • Cox DR (1972) Regression models and life tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B 34, 187220.
  • Day KP & Marsh K (1991) Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum. Immunology Today 12, A68A71.
  • Etchegorry MG, Matthys F, Galinski M, White NJ & Nosten F (2001) Malaria epidemic in Burundi. The Lancet 357, 10461047.
  • Garnham PCC (1948) The incidence of malaria at high altitudes. Journal of the National Malaria Society 7, 275284.
  • Gillies MT (1961) Studies on the dispersion and survival of Anopheles gambiae Giles in East Africa, by means of marking and release experiments. Bulletin of Entomological Research 52, 99127.
  • Gillies MT & Coetzee M (1987) A Supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa south of the Sahara. Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research No. 55, Johannesburg.
  • Gillies MT & Wilkes TJ (1965) A study of the age-composition of populations of Anopheles gambiae Giles and A. funestus Giles in North-Eastern Tanzania. Bulletin of Entomological Research 56, 237262.
  • Hay SI, Cox J, Rogers DJ et al. (2002a) Climate change and the resurgence of malaria in the East African highlands. Nature 415, 905909.
  • Hay SI, Rogers DJ, Randolph SE et al. (2002b) Hot topic or hot air? Climate change and malaria resurgence in East African highlands. Trends in Parasitology 18, 530534.
  • Highton RB, Bryan JH, Boreham PFL & Chandler JA (1979) Studies on the sibling species Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Kisumu area, Kenya. Bulletin of Entomological Research 69, 4353.
  • Jenkins DW (1964) Pathogens, parasites and predators of medically important arthropods. Annotated list and bibliography. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 30, 4078.
  • Kleinbaum DG (1996) Survival Analysis – A Self-Learning Text. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Koenraadt CJ, Githeko AK & Takken W (2004) The effects of rainfall and evapotranspiration on the temporal dynamics of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis in a Kenyan village. Acta Tropica 90, 141153.
  • Linacre E (1992) Climate Data and Resources. Routledge, London.
  • Lindblade KA, Walker ED, Onapa AW, Katungu J & Wilson ML (1999) Highland malaria in Uganda: prospective analysis of an epidemic associated with El Niño. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93, 480487.
  • Lindblade KA, Walker ED & Wilson ML (2000) Early warning of malaria epidemics in African highlands using Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) indoor resting density. Journal of Medical Entomology 37, 664674.
  • Lindsay SW & Martens WJ (1998) Malaria in the African highlands: past, present and future. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 76, 3345.
  • Lines JD, Curtis CF, Wilkes T & Njunwa KJ (1991) Monitoring human-biting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with light-traps hung beside mosquito nets. Bulletin of Entomological Research 81, 7784.
  • Lyimo EO, Takken W & Koella JC. (1992) Effect of rearing temperature and larval density on larval survival, age at pupation and adult size of Anopheles gambiae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 63, 265271.
  • Macdonald G. (1957) Appendix I – Mathematical statement. In: The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria (ed. GMacdonald) Oxford University Press, London, p. 201.
  • Magbity EB, Lines JD, Marbiah MT, David K & Peterson E. (2002) How reliable are light traps in estimating biting rates of adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in the presence of treated bed nets? Bulletin of Entomological Research 92, 7176.
  • Malakooti MA, Biomndo K & Shanks GD. (1998) Reemergence of epidemic malaria in the highlands of western Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases 4, 671676.
  • Manga L, Fondjo E, Carnevale P & Robert V. (1993) Importance of low dispersion of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) on malaria transmission in hilly towns in south Cameroon. Journal of Medical Entomology 30, 936938.
  • Mboera LEG, Kihonda J, Braks MAH & Knols BGJ. (1998) Short report: influence of centers for disease control light trap position, relative to a human-baited bed net, on catches of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Tanzania. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 59, 595596.
  • Mbogo CN, Glass GE, Forster D et al. (1993) Evaluation of light traps for sampling anopheline mosquitoes in Kilifi, Kenya. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 9, 260263.
  • Minakawa N, Sonye G, Mogi M, Githeko A & Yan G. (2002) The effects of climatic factors on the distribution and abundance of malaria vectors in Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 39, 833841.
  • Mouchet J, Manguin S, Sircoulon J et al. (1998) Evolution of malaria in Africa for the past 40 years: impact of climatic and human factors. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 14, 121130.
  • Patz JA, Hulme M, Rosenzweig C et al. (2002) Regional warming and malaria resurgence. Nature 420, 627628.
  • Rogers DJ, Randolph SE, Snow RW & Hay SI (2002) Satellite imagery in the study and forecast of malaria. Nature 415, 710715.
  • Scott JA, Brogdon WG & Collins FH (1993) Identification of single specimens of the Anopheles gambiae complex by the polymerase chain reaction. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 49, 520529.
  • Service MW (1993) Mosquito Ecology. Field Sampling Methods, 2nd Edn. Elsevier Applied Sciences, London.
  • Shanks GD, Biomndo K, Hay SI & Snow RW (2000) Changing patterns of clinical malaria since 1965 among a tea estate population located in the Kenyan highlands. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94, 253255.
  • Shanks GD, Hay SI, Stern DI, Biomndo K & Snow RW (2002) Meteorologic influences on Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the highland tea estates of Kericho, western Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8, 14041408.
  • Shililu JI, Maier WA, Seitz HM & Orago AS (1998) Seasonal density, sporozoite rates and entomological inoculation rates of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in a high-altitude sugarcane growing zone in Western Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 3, 706710.
  • Smith A (1959) Effect of residual house spraying in the plains on anopheline densities in huts on the Pare Mountains. Nature 183, 198199.
  • Smith T. (1995) Proportionality between light trap catches and biting densities of malaria vectors. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 11, 377378.
  • Smith TA, Leuenberger R & Lengeler C (2001) Child mortality and malaria transmission intensity in Africa. Trends in Parasitology 17, 145149.
  • Smith T, Killeen G, Lengeler C & Tanner M (2004) Relationships between the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the intensity of transmission in Africa. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71, 8086.
  • Snow RW, Craig MH, Deichmann U & Le,Sueur D (1999) A preliminary continental risk map for malaria mortality among African children. Parasitology Today 15, 99104.
  • Takken W, Klowden MJ & Chambers GM (1998) Effect of body size on host seeking and blood meal utilization in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae): the disadvantage of being small. Journal of Medical Entomology 35, 639645.
  • White GB (1972) The Anopheles gambiae complex and malaria transmission around Kisumu, Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 66, 572581.
  • Zhou G, Minakawa N, Githeko AK & Yan G (2004) Association between climate variability and malaria epidemics in the East African highlands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101, 23752380.