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HIV/AIDS

  1. Top of page
  2. HIV/AIDS
  3. Rotavirus
  4. Vector control
  5. Respiratory infections
  6. Ross river virus
  7. Optimizing treatment

A systematic literature review to determine the degree of developmental impairment due to HIV infection in children living in sub-Saharan Africa revealed moderate to severe delays in motor, mental and language development. Although HIV affects all domains of child functioning, motor development is the most apparent in terms of severity, early onset, and persistence across age groups. 880–887

The authors analyzed temporal trends in baseline clinical characteristics, initial treatment regimens and monitoring of patients starting antiretroviral therapy in poor settings in SSA, Asia and Latin America. The public health approach to providing ART proposed by WHO has been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Although baseline CD4 cell counts have increaseed, most patients start with counts well below the recommended threshold. 870–879

Within a WHO type III strategy, two second-line methods for HIV screening of a population of pregnant women in Congo were compared: Determine and Vironostika. Genscreen positive/Vironostika negative samples corresponded 100%, whereas Determine overestimated HIV seroprevalence by 5.5%. Choosing appropriate assays in adequate sequence, within the correct WHO strategy, is pivotal to minimize the risk of overtreatment of HIV infection. 900–903

A review of barriers impeding people living with HIV/AIDS in developing countries in accessing treatment showed that at population level lack of information about ART, perceived high costs of ART and stigma were most frequently mentioned. At health system level were long distance from home to the health facility, lack of coordination across services and limited involvement of the community in the programme planning process were the main barriers. 904–913

Rotavirus

  1. Top of page
  2. HIV/AIDS
  3. Rotavirus
  4. Vector control
  5. Respiratory infections
  6. Ross river virus
  7. Optimizing treatment

Diarrhoeal disease in children constitutes a considerable economic burden in Vellore. An appropriately priced and effective rotavirus vaccine may provide significant economic savings for the Indian household and healthcare system. 934–942

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Percentage of households borrowing money to pay for a diarrhoeal hospitalisation stratified by annual income

Vector control

  1. Top of page
  2. HIV/AIDS
  3. Rotavirus
  4. Vector control
  5. Respiratory infections
  6. Ross river virus
  7. Optimizing treatment

The impact of two long lasting nets, Olyset and PermaNet, on indoor sandfly abundance was evaluated in endemic hamlets in Bihar, assuming that most sandflies breed inside the houses and that LLINs would progressively reduce the indoor density during the reproduction season. However, only the density of males of P. argentipes was significantly reduced by both LLINs, suggesting that most female sandflies are coming from outside. 953–958

Respiratory infections

  1. Top of page
  2. HIV/AIDS
  3. Rotavirus
  4. Vector control
  5. Respiratory infections
  6. Ross river virus
  7. Optimizing treatment

A birth cohort of rural Kenyan children was intensively monitored for acute respiratory infection over three respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics, to identify factors associated with developing severe RSV pneumonia and their commonality with all-cause lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The factors identified were host nutritional status (stunting) and contact intensity (crowding, siblings), which are distinguishable in their association with severe RSV in the infant and young child and broadly in common with those associated with all-cause LRTI. 914–926

The health seeking behavior of rural-to-urban migrants with chronic cough in Chongqing City, was compared to that of the permanent urban population with the same symptoms. Two-thirds of migrants and more than half of urban residents delayed treatment by more than two weeks, due to lack of money and no perceived need for care. Women, the unemployed and the poor, those without health insurance or enough knowledge of TB also went without care for longer. 927–933

Ross river virus

  1. Top of page
  2. HIV/AIDS
  3. Rotavirus
  4. Vector control
  5. Respiratory infections
  6. Ross river virus
  7. Optimizing treatment

Based on the epidemiology of Ross River virus (RRV) infection in the endemic Darwin region of tropical northern Australia, a predictive model for RRV infections involving rainfall, minimum temperature, and three mosquito species was developed. This model also indicates that predicted anthropogenic global climatic changes may result in an increase in RRV infections. 943–952

Optimizing treatment

  1. Top of page
  2. HIV/AIDS
  3. Rotavirus
  4. Vector control
  5. Respiratory infections
  6. Ross river virus
  7. Optimizing treatment

A multifaceted intervention to optimize antimicrobial treatment of patients with fever in Surabaya met with limited success. The intervention included developing, officially adopting and teaching a consensus guideline, distributing a guideline pocketbook and free blood cultures. But lack of adequate microbiological diagnostics imeded rational use of antibiotics. 888–899

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Defined daily doses/100 patient-days in 2-week periods