SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Amexo M, Tolhurst R, Barnish G & Bates I (2004) Malaria misdiagnosis: effects on the poor and vulnerable. Lancet 364, 18961898.
  • Armstrong D (2002) Clinical autonomy, individual and collective: the problem of changing doctors’ behaviour. Social Science & Medicine 55, 17711777.
  • Avorn J & Solomon DH (2000) Cultural and economic factors that (mis)shape antibiotic use: the nonpharmacologic basis of therapeutics. Annals of International Medicine 133, 128135.
  • Barat L, Chipipa J, Kolczak M & Sukwa T (1999) Does the availability of blood slide microscopy for malaria at health centers improve the management of persons with fever in Zambia? The American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 60, 10241030.
  • Berkley JA, Lowe BS, Mwangi I et al. (2005) Bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya. The New England Journal Med 352, 3947.
  • Bjerrum L, Sogaard J, Hallas J & Kragstrup J (1999) Polypharmacy in general practice: differences between practitioners. The British Journal of General Practice 49, 195198.
  • Browne W J (2003) MCMC estimation in MLwiN, Institute of Education, London.
  • Chandler CI, Jones C, Boniface G et al. (2008) Guidelines and mindlines: why do clinical staff over-diagnose malaria in Tanzania? A qualitative study. Malar Journal 7, 53.
  • D’Acremont V, Lengeler C & Genton B (2007) Stop ambiguous messages on malaria diagnosis. British Medical Journal 334, 489.
  • Davidson W, Molloy D W & Bedard M (1995) Physician characteristics and prescribing for elderly people in New Brunswick: relation to patient outcomes. Canadian Medical Association Journal 152, 12271234.
  • Font F, Alonso Gonzalez M, Nathan R et al. (2001) Diagnostic accuracy and case management of clinical malaria in the primary health services of a rural area in south-eastern Tanzania. Tropical Medicine & International Health 6, 423428.
  • Gove S (1997) Integrated management of childhood illness by outpatient health workers: technical basis and overview. The WHO Working Group on Guidelines for Integrated Management of the Sick. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 75 (Suppl. 1), 724.
  • Goldstein H (1995) Multilevel Statistical Models, 2nd edn. Edward Arnold, London.
  • Goldstein H, Browne W & Rasbash J (2002) Partitioning variation in multilevel models. Understanding Statistics, 1, 223232.
  • Hamer DH, Ndhlovu M, Zurovac D et al. (2007) Improved diagnostic testing and malaria treatment practices in Zambia. Journal of American Medical Association 297, 22272231.
  • Haynes B & Haines A (2002) Barriers and bridges to evidence-based clinical practice. In: Getting Research Findings into Practice, 2nd edn (eds AHaines & ADonald), BMJ Books, London, pp. 115122.
  • Hemminki E (1975) Review of literature on the factors affecting drug prescribing. Social Science and Medicine 9, 111116.
  • Howteerakul N, Higginbotham N, Freeman S & Dibley MJ (2003) ORS is never enough: physician rationales for altering standard treatment guidelines when managing childhood diarrhoea in Thailand. Social Science & Medicine 57, 10311044.
  • Jonkman A, Chibwe RA, Khoromana CO et al. (1995) Cost-saving through microscopy-based versus presumptive diagnosis of malaria in adult outpatients in Malawi. Bulletin of World Health Organization 73, 223227.
  • Leonard KL & Masatu MC (2005) The use of direct clinician observation and vignettes for health services quality evaluation in developing countries. Social Science & Medicine 61, 19441951.
  • Merlo J, Chaix B, Yang M, Lynch J & Rastam L (2005) A brief conceptual tutorial of multilevel analysis in social epidemiology: linking the statistical concept of clustering to the idea of contextual phenomenon. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 59, 443449.
  • Naimoli JF, Rowe AK, Lyaghfouri A, Larbi R & Lamrani LA (2006) Effect of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy on health care quality in Morocco. International Journal for Quality in Health 18, 134144.
  • Njama-Meya D, Clark TD, Nzarubara B et al. (2007) Treatment of malaria restricted to laboratory-confirmed cases: a prospective cohort study in Ugandan children. Malar Journal 6, 7.
  • Osterholt DM, Rowe AK, Hamel MJ et al. (2006) Predictors of treatment error for children with uncomplicated malaria seen as outpatients in Blantyre district, Malawi. Tropical Medicine & International Health 11, 11471156.
  • Paredes P, De la Pena M, Flores-Guerra E, Diaz J & Trostle J (1996) Factors influencing physicians’ prescribing behaviour in the treatment of childhood diarrhoea: knowledge may not be the clue. Social Science & Medicine 42, 11411153.
  • Rasbash J, Steele F, Browne W & Prosser B (2005) A User’s Guide to MLwiN. Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.
  • Reyburn H, Mbatia R, Drakeley C et al. (2004) Overdiagnosis of malaria in patients with severe febrile illness in Tanzania: a prospective study. British Medical Journal 329, 1212.
  • Reyburn H, Mbakilwa H, Mwangi R et al. (2007) Rapid diagnostic tests compared with malaria microscopy for guiding outpatient treatment of febrile illness in Tanzania: randomised trial. British Medical Journal 334, 403.
  • Ross-Degnan D, Laing R, Santoso B et al. (1997) Improving Pharmaceutical Use in Primary Care in Developing Counties: A Critical Review of Experience and Lack of Experience. Chiang Mai, April 1997.
  • Rowe AK, Hamel MJ, Flanders WD et al. (2000) Predictors of correct treatment of children with fever seen at outpatient health facilities in the Central African Republic. American Journal of Epidemiology 151, 10291035.
  • Rowe A, Onikpo F, Lama M, Cokou F & Deming M S (2001) Management of Childhood illness at Health Facilities in Benin: Problems and their Causes. American Journal of Public Health 91, 16251635.
  • Rowe AK, Lama M, Onikpo F & Deming M S (2002) Health worker perceptions of how being observed influences their practices during consultations with ill children. Tropical Doctor 32, 166167.
  • Rowe A K, Onikpo F, Lama M & Deming M S (2003) Risk and protective factors for two types of error in the treatment of children with fever at outpatient health facilities in Benin. International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 296303.
  • Rowe AK, De Savigny D, Lanata CF & Victora CG (2005) How can we achieve and maintain high-quality performance of health workers in low-resource settings? Lancet 366, 10261035.
  • Schwartz R K, Soumerai S B & Avorn J (1989) Physician motivations for nonscientific drug prescribing. Social Science & Medicine 28, 577582.
  • Snijders TAB & Bosker RJ (1999) Multilevel Analysis. Sage, Newbury Park.
  • Talisuna AO & Meya DN (2007) Diagnosis and treatment of malaria. British Medical Journal 334, 375376.
  • Tanzania Ministry of Health (2001) Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria. A Handbook for Clinicians. National Malaria Control Programme, Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania Ministry of Health (2006) Malaria Guidelines. National Malaria Control Programme, Dar es Salaam.
  • Van Dillen J, De Jager AJ, De Jong I & Wendte JF (2007) Overdiagnosis of malaria in hospitalized patients in Namibia. Tropical Doctor 37, 18586.
  • Veninga CC, Denig P, Zwaagstra R & Haaijer-Ruskamp FM (2000) Improving drug treatment in general practice. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 53, 762772.
  • WHO (2006a) Facts on ACTS. WHO, Geneva. http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Drug_Policy_RBMInfosheet_9.pdf Accessed 7 August 2007 .
  • WHO (2006b), Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. WHO, Geneva (WHO/HTM/MAL/2006.1108).
  • Wiseman V, Kim M, Mutabingwa TK & Whitty CJ (2006) Cost-Effectiveness Study of Three Antimalarial Drug Combinations in Tanzania. PLoS Medicine 3, e373.
  • Zurovac D & Rowe A K (2006) Quality of treatment for febrile illness among children at outpatient facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 100, 283296.
  • Zurovac D, Rowe A, KOchola SA et al. (2004) Predictors of the quality of health worker treatment practices for uncomplicated malaria at government health facilities in Kenya. International Journal of Epidemiology 33, 10801091.
  • Zurovac D, Ndhlovu M, Rowe A K et al. (2005) Treatment of paediatric malaria during a period of drug transition to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 331, 734.
  • Zurovac D, Larson B A, Akhwale W & Snow R W (2006) The financial and clinical implications of adult malaria diagnosis using microscopy in Kenya. Tropical Medicine & International Health 11, 11851194.