• Antinori S, Calattini S, Longhi E et al. (2007) Clinical use of polymerase chain reaction performed on peripheral blood and bone marrow samples for the diagnosis and monitoring of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients: a single-center, 8-year experience in Italy and review of the literature. Clinical Infectious Diseases 44, 16021610.
  • Arias JR, Miles MA, Naiff RD et al. (1985) Flagellate infections of Brazilian sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): isolation in vitro and biochemical identification of Endotrypanum and Leishmania. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 34, 10981108.
  • Boelaert M, Rijal S, Regmi S et al. (2004) A comparative study of the effectiveness of diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 70, 7277.
  • Boelaert M, El-Safi S, Hailu A et al. (2008) Diagnostic tests for kala-azar: a multi-centre study of the freeze-dried DAT, rK39 strip test and KAtex in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 102, 3240.
  • Chicharro C & Alvar J (2003) Lower trypanosomatids in HIV/AIDS patients. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 97, 7578.
  • Deborggraeve S, Laurent T, Espinosa D et al. Leishmania OligoC-TesT: towards a simplified and standardised PCR format for diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, in press.
  • Dereure J, Barnabé C, Vié JC, Madélenat F & Raccurt C (2001) Trypanosomatidae from wild mammals in the neotropical rainforest of French Guiana. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 95, 157166.
  • Van Eys GJJM, Schoone GJ, Kroon NCM & Ebeling SA (1992) Sequence analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes and its use for detection and identification of Leishmania parasites. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 51, 133142.
  • Hailu A (1990) Pre- and post-treatment antibody levels in visceral leishmaniasis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 673675.
  • Kongkaew W, Siriarayaporn P, Leelayoova S et al. (2007) Autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis: a report of a second case in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 38, 812.
  • Lachaud L, Dereure J, Chabbert E et al. (2000) Optimized PCR using patient blood samples for diagnosis and follow-up of visceral leishmaniasis, with special reference to AIDS patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38, 236240.
  • Le Ray D (1975) Structures antigéniques de Trypanosoma brucei (protozoa, kinetoplastida). Annales de la Société Belge de Médecine Tropicale 55, 129311.
  • Mary C, Faraut F, Laurie Lascombe & Dumon H (2004) Quantification of Leishmania infantum DNA by a real-time PCR assay with high sensitivity. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42, 52495255.
  • Maurya R, Singh RK, Kumar B, Salotra P, Rai M & Sundar S (2005) Evaluation of PCR for diagnosis of Indian kala-azar and assessment of cure. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43, 30383041.
  • Prina E, Roux E, Mattei D & Milon G (2007) Leishmania DNA is rapidly degraded following parasite death: an analysis by microscopy and real-time PCR. Microbes and Infection 9, 13071315.
  • Reale S, Maxia L, Vitale F, Glorioso NS, Caracappa S & Vesco G (1999) Detection of Leishmania infantum in dogs by PCR with lymph node aspirates and blood. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37, 29312935.
  • Sundar S, Singh RK, Maurya R et al. (2006) Serological diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis: direct agglutination test versus rK39 strip test. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 100, 533537.
  • UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank & WHO (2006) TDR Summary Report 2004-05. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 115.
  • Wilson EB (1927) Probable inference, the law of succession, and statistical inference. Journal of the American Statistical Association 22, 209212.
  • WHO (1990) Control of the Leishmaniases. Technical Report Series 793. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 1158.