• Adazu K, Lindblade KA, Rosen DH et al. (2005) Health and demographic surveillance in rural western Kenya: a platform for evaluating interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 73, 11511158.
  • Airey T (1992) The impact of road construction on the spatial characteristics of hospital utilization in the Meru district of Kenya. Social Science and Medicine 34, 11351146.
  • Amin AA, Marsh V, Noor AM, Ochola AS & Snow RW (2003) The use of formal and informal curative services in the management of paediatric fevers in four districts in Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 3, 11431152.
  • Amornkul PN, Vandenhoudt H, Odhiambo F et al. (2004) HIV prevalence among 13–34 year olds in a large cross-sectional survey in rural western Kenya. Oral presentation, abstract #22, August 30, 2004. AIDS Vaccine 04 Conference. Lausanne, Switzerland.
  • Gething PW, Noor AM, Zurovac D et al. (2004) Empirical modeling of government health service use by children with fevers in Kenya. Acta Tropica 91, 227237.
  • Kloos H (1990) Utilization of selected hospitals, health centres and health stations in central, southern and western Ethiopia. Social Science and Medicine 31, 101114.
  • Lindblade KA, Hamel MJ, Feikin DR et al. (2007) Mortality of sick children after outpatient treatment at first-level health facilities in rural western Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 12, 12581268.
  • Makinen M, Waters H, Rauch M et al. (2000) Inequalities in health care use and expenditures: empirical data from eight developing countries and countries in transition. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78, 5565.
  • Mbatia PN (2003) Responding to crisis: patterns of health care utilization in central Kenya amid economic decline. African Studies Review, April. Retrieved April 1 2006 at
  • Ministry of Health (1997) Health Policy Framework. Ministry of Health, Government of Kenya, Nairobi.
  • Muller I, Smith T, Mellor S, Rare L & Genton B (1998) The effect of distance from home on attendance at a small rural health centre in Papua New Guinea. International Journal of Epidemiology 27, 878884.
  • Mwaniki PK, Kabiru EW & Mbugua GG (2002) Utilisation of antenatal and maternity services by mothers seeking child welfare services in Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya. East African Medical Journal 79, 184187.
  • Nabarro DN & Tayler E (1998) The “Roll Back Malaria” campaign. Science 280, 20672068.
  • Noor AM, Zurovac D, Hay S, Ochola SA & Snow RW (2003) Defining equity in physical access to clinical services using geographical information systems as part of malaria planning and monitoring in Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8, 917926.
  • Phillips-Howard PA, Nahlen BL, Wannemuehler KA et al. (2003) Impact of Permethrin-treated bed nets on the incidence of sick child visits to peripheral health facilities. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68 (Suppl. 4), 3843.
  • Rahaman MM, Aziz KMS, Munshi MH, Patwari Y & Rahman M (1982) A diarrhea clinic in rural Bangladesh: influence of distance, age and sex on attendance and diarrhea mortality. American Journal of Public Health 72, 11241128.
  • Schellenberg JA, Newell JN, Snow RW et al. (1998) An analysis of the geographical distribution of severe malaria in children in Kilifi District, Kenya. International Journal of Epidemiology 27, 323329.
  • Shannon GW, Bashshur RL & Metzner CA (1969) The concept of distance as a factor in accessibility and utilization of healthcare. Medical Care Review 26, 143161.
  • Stock R (1983) Distance and the utilization of health facilities in rural Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine 17, 563570.
  • Vyas S & Kumaranayake L (2006) Constructing socioeconomic status indices: how to use principal components analysis. HIV Tools Research Group, Health Policy Unit, Department of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
  • Weber MW, Miligan P, Sanneh M et al. (2002) An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80, 562568.
  • WHO/UNICEF (2004) Joint WHO/UNICEF Statement on clinical management of acute diarrhea. Accessed at