Very early mortality in patients starting antiretroviral treatment at primary health centres in rural Malawi
Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2009
© 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tropical Medicine & International Health
Volume 14, Issue 7, pages 713–721, July 2009
How to Cite
Zachariah, R., Harries, K., Moses, M., Manzi, M., Line, A., Mwagomba, B. and Harries, A. D. (2009), Very early mortality in patients starting antiretroviral treatment at primary health centres in rural Malawi. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 14: 713–721. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02291.x
- Issue online: 8 JUL 2009
- Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2009
- ART-LINC (2006) The antiretroviral therapy in lower income countries. Collaboration and ART cohort collaboration (ART-CC) groups. Mortality of HIV-1 infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: comparison between low-income and high-income countries. Lancet 367, 817–824. , , et al.
- 1997) T-Lymphoctopenia, opportunistic infections and pathological findings in Ghanaian AIDS patients and their sexual partners. East African Medical Journal 74, 784–791. , , et al. (
- 2006) Mortality of HIV-1-infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: comparison between low-income and high-income countries. Lancet 367, 817–824. , , et al. (
- 2008) Increased mortality of male adults with AIDS related to poor compliance to antiretroviral therapy in Malawi. Tropical Medicine and International Health 19, 513–519. , , et al. (
- 2004) Outcomes after two years of providing antiretroviral treatment in Khayelitsha, South Africa. AIDS 18, 887–895. , , et al. (
- 1989) Oesophageal symptoms, their causes, treatment and prognosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Gut 30, 1033–1039. (
- 2008) Defaulters from antiretroviral treatment in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Tropical Medicine and International Health 13, 328–333. , , , & (
- 1991) Oral candidiasis in HIV infection: pseudomembranous and erythematous candidiasis show similar rates of progression to AIDS. AIDS 5, 1339–1343. (
- 1997) Oral transmission of candida albicans between partners in HIV infected couples could contribute to dissemination of fluconazole-resistant isolates. AIDS 11, 1095–1101. , , et al. (
- 2002) Prognosis of HIV-1 infected patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies. Lancet 360, 119–129. , & (
- 1990) Life threatening bacteremia in HIV-1 seropositive adults admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Lancet 336, 545–549. , , et al. (
- 2001) Bacteremia and mortality among adult medical admissions in Malawi. Predominance of non-typhi salmonellae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Journal of Infection 42, 44–49. , , et al. (
- 2004) Monitoring the response to antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: the Malawi model. Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 98, 695–701. , , et al. (
- 2005) Early mortality among adults accessing a community-based antiretroviral service in South Africa: implications for programme design. AIDS 19, 2141–2148. , , , & (
- 2006) Determinants of mortality and non-death losses from an antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa: implications for program evaluation. Clinical Infectious Disease 43, 770–776. , , , & (
- 2008) Early mortality among adults accessing antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS 22, 1897–1908. , , , & (
- 2002) Clinical indicators of mycobacteraemia in adults admitted to hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 6, 1067–1074. , , et al. (
- 2005) Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Africa : learning from tuberculosis control programmes – the case of Malawi. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 9, 1062–1071. , , et al. (
- 2008) A public health approach to rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment in Malaŵi during 2004–2006. Journal of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 49, 287–293. , , et al. (
- 1994) Contribution of tuberculosis to slim disease in Africa. British Medical Journal 308, 1531–1533. , , et al. (
- 1992) Host factors associated with HIV-related oral candidiasis: a review. Oral surgery, Oral medicine, Oral pathology, Oral radiology, and endodontics 73, 181–186. (
- 1999) Unrecognized Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteraemia among inpatients in less-developed countries. Lancet 354, 1159–1163. , , et al. (
- 1998) Changing patterns of mortality across Europe in patients infected with HIV-1. Lancet 352, 1725–1730. , , et al. (
- MOHP/NAC (2006) Ministry of Health and Population and National AIDS Commission. Guidelines for the use of anti-retroviral therapy in Malawi, 2nd Edn. Lilongwe, Malawi.
- 2000) Survival by AIDS defining condition in rural Uganda. Sexually Transmitted Infections 76, 193–197. (
- NAC (2007) HIV and Syphilis Sero-Survey and National HIV Prevalence and AIDS Estimates Report. National AIDS commission, Lilongwe.
- 2004) A prospective study of bloodstream infections as a cause of fever in Malawi: clinical predictors and implications for management. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9, 928–934. , , et al. (
- 2008) Task shifting for antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: not a panacea. Lancet 371, 682–684. , & (
- 1999) Evaluating diagnosis and treatment of oral and oesophageal candidiasis in Ugandan AIDS patients. Emerging Infectious Disease 5, 274–277. , , & (
- USDHH (2003) A clinical guide to supportive and palliative care. United States Department for Health and Human Services. http://hab.hrsa.gov/tools/palliative (accessed 24 October 2008).
- WHO (2006a) Taking stock: health worker shortages and the response to AIDS. WHO, Geneva. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/advocacy/ttr/en/index.html (accessed 24 September 2008).
- WHO (2006b) Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents in resource limited settings: towards universal access. Recommendations for a public health approach. 2006 revision. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/art/en/index.html (accessed 13 March 2009).
- WHO (2006c) Progress on global access to HIV antiretroviral therapy: a report on ‘3 by 5’ and beyond. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/hiv/fullreport_en_highres.pdf (accessed 18 July 2008).
- Wikipedia (2008) Plumpy’nut. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Plumpy’nut (accessed 4 November 2008).
- 1995) Prospective evaluation of oropharyngeal findings in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with oesophageal ulceration. American Journal of gastroenterology 90, 1938–1941. , & (
- 1996) Fluconazole compared with endoscopy for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with oesophageal symptoms. Gastroenterology 110, 1803–1809. , , & (
- 2008) Outcomes in HIV-infected patients who develop tuberculosis after starting antiretroviral treatment in Malawi. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 12, 692–694. , , et al. (
- 2006a) Risk factors for high mortality in patients on antiretroviral treatment in a rural district of Malawi. AIDS 20, 2355–2360. , , et al. (
- 2006b) Acceptance of anti-retroviral Therapy among patients infected with HIV and Tuberculosis in rural Malawi is low and associated with cost of transport. PLoS ONE 27, 1–6. , , et al. (
- 2007) Community support is associated with better antiretroviral treatment outcomes in a resource-limited rural district in Malawi. Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101, 79–84. , , et al. (