SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Altes J, Salas A, Riera M et al. (1991) Visceral leishmaniasis: another HIV-associated opportunistic infection? Report of eight cases and review of the literature AIDS 5, 201207.
  • Alvar J, Aparicio P, Aseffa A et al. (2008) The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 21, 334359.
  • Andrade TM, Carvalho EM & Rocha H (1990) Bacterial infections in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 162, 13541359.
  • Badri M, Ehrlich R, Wood R, Pulerwitz T & Maartens G (2001) Association between tuberculosis and HIV disease progression in a high tuberculosis prevalence area. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 5, 225232.
  • Bentwich Z (2003) Concurrent infections that rise the HIV viral load. Journal of HIV Therapy 8, 7275.
  • Berhe N, Wolday D, Hailu A et al. (1999) HIV viral load and response to antileishmanial chemotherapy in co-infected patients. AIDS 13, 19211925.
  • Berhe N, Hailu A, Abraham Y, Tadesse Y, Breivik K & Abebe Y (2001) Inter-current and nosocomial infections among visceral leishmaniasis patients in Ethiopia: an observational study. Acta Tropica 80, 8795.
  • Berry A, Abraham B, Dereure J, Pinzani V, Bastien P & Reynes J (2004) Two case reports of symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis in AIDS patients concomitant with immune reconstitution due to antiretroviral therapy. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 36, 225227.
  • Boelaert M, El-Safi S, Hailu A et al. (2008) Diagnostic tests for kala-azar: a multi-centre study of the freeze-dried DAT, rK39 strip test and KAtex in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 102, 3240.
  • Cacopardo B, Nigro L, Preiser W et al. (1996) Prolonged Th2 cell activation and increased viral replication in HIV-Leishmania co-infected patients despite treatment. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90, 434435.
  • Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N et al. (2003) The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Archives of Internal Medicine 163, 10091021.
  • Gilad J, Borer A, Hallel-Halevy D, Riesenberg K, Alkan M & Schlaeffer F (2001) Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis manifesting after initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Israel Medical Association Journal 3, 451452.
  • Hailu A, Gebre-Michael T, Berhe N & Balkew M (2006) Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. In: Epidemiology and Ecology of Health and Disease in Ethipiopia. 1st edn (eds BerhaneY, HailemariamD & KloosH) Shama Press, Addis Ababa, pp. 615634.
  • Ter Horst R, Collin SM, Ritmeijer K, Bogale A & Davidson RN (2008) Concordant HIV infection and visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: the influence of antiretroviral treatment and other factors on outcome. Clinical Infectious Diseases 46, 17021709.
  • Ter Horst R, Tefera T, Assefa G, Ebrahim AZ, Davidson RN & Ritmeijer K (2009) Field evaluation of rK39 test and direct agglutination test for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a population with high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in Ethiopia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80, 929934.
  • Laguna F, Torre-Cisneros J, Moreno V, Villanueva JL & Valencia E (1995) Efficacy of intermittent liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 21, 711712.
  • De La Loma A, Alvar J, Martinez Galiano E, Blazquez J, Alcala Munoz A & Najera R (1985) Leishmaniasis or AIDS? Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79, 421422.
  • Lopez-Velez R, Perez-Molina JA, Guerrero A et al. (1998) Clinicoepidemiologic characteristics, prognostic factors, and survival analysis of patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and Leishmania in an area of Madrid, Spain. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58, 436443.
  • Lyons S, Veeken H & Long J (2003) Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV in Tigray, Ethiopia. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8, 733739.
  • Marty P, Lelievre A, Quaranta JF, Rahal A, Gari-Toussaint M & Le Fichoux Y (1994) Use of the leishmanin skin test and western blot analysis for epidemiological studies in visceral leishmaniasis areas: experience in a highly endemic focus in Alpes-Maritimes (France). Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88, 658659.
  • Medrano FJ, Hernandez-Quero J, Jimenez E et al. (1992) Visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-1-infected individuals: a common opportunistic infection in Spain? AIDS 6, 14991503.
  • Mengistu G & Ayele B (2007) Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection in patients admitted to Gondar university hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 21, 5360.
  • Ministry of Health (2006) Visceral Leishmaniasis,diagnosis and treatment guidelines for health workers in Ethiopia. Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa.
  • Ministry of Health (2007) Single point HIV prevalence estimate. Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa.
  • Montalban C, Calleja JL, Erice A et al. (1990) Visceral leishmaniasis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Co-operative Group for the Study of Leishmaniasis in AIDS. Journal of Infection 21, 261270.
  • Olivier M, Badaro R, Medrano FJ & Moreno J (2003) The pathogenesis of Leishmania/HIV co-infection: cellular and immunological mechanisms. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 97(Suppl 1), 7998.
  • Pape JW (2004) Tuberculosis and HIV in the Caribbean: approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. Topics in HIV Medicine 12, 144149.
  • Pintado V, Martin-Rabadan P, Rivera ML, Moreno S & Bouza E (2001) Visceral leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected patients. A comparative study. Medicine (Baltimore) 80, 5473.
  • Plate DK (2007) Evaluation and implementation of rapid HIV tests: the experience in 11 African countries. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 23, 14911498.
  • Raffi F, Merrien D, Le Pape P & Reliquet V (1995) Use of an Itraconazole/allopurinol combination for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in a patient with AIDS. Clinical Infectious Diseases 21, 13381339.
  • Ritmeijer K, Veeken H, Melaku Y et al. (2001) Ethiopian visceral leishmaniasis: generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate are equivalent: HIV co-infected patients have a poor outcome. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95, 668672.
  • Ritmeijer K, Dejenie A, Assefa Y et al. (2006) A comparison of miltefosine and sodium stibogluconate for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in an Ethiopian population with high prevalence of HIV infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases 43, 357364.
  • Rosenthal E, Marty P, Del Giudice P et al. (2000) HIV and Leishmania coinfection: a review of 91 cases with focus on atypical locations of Leishmania. Clinical Infectious Diseases 31, 10931095.
  • Russo R, Nigro LC, Minniti S et al. (1996) Visceral leishmaniasis in HIV infected patients: treatment with high dose liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome). Journal of Infection 32, 133137.
  • Russo R, Laguna F, Lopez-Velez R et al. (2003) Visceral leishmaniasis in those infected with HIV: clinical aspects and other opportunistic infections. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 97(Suppl 1), 99105.
  • Scott JA, Davidson RN, Moody AH et al. (1992) Aminosidine (paromomycin) in the treatment of leishmaniasis imported into the United Kingdom. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86, 617619.
  • World Health Organization (1996) Manual on Visceral Leishmaniasis. WHO, Geneva. http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/surveillance/training/en/WHO_LEISH_96.40.pdf
  • World Health Organization (2008) Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993–2005. WHO, Geneva. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241596657_eng.pdf