• Bern C, Haque R, Chowdhury R et al. (2007) The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis and asymptomatic leishmanial infection in a highly endemic Bangladeshi village. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76, 909914.
  • Bhattarai NR, Van Der Auwera G, Khanal B et al. (2009) PCR and direct agglutination as Leishmania infection markers among healthy Nepalese subjects living in areas endemic for Kala-Azar. Tropical Medicine & International Health 14, 404411.
  • Burns JM, Shreffler WG, Benson DR, Ghalib HW, Badaro R & Reed SG (1993) Molecular characterization of a kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania-chagasi that detects specific antibody in African and American visceral leishmaniasis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90, 775779.
  • Carvalho SF, Lemos EM, Corey R & Dietze R (2003) Performance of recombinant K39 antigen in the diagnosis of Brazilian visceral leishmaniasis. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68, 321324.
  • Chappuis F, Sundar S, Hailu A et al. (2007) Visceral leishmaniasis: What are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control? Nature Reviews Microbiology 5, 873882.
  • Davies CR & Mazloumi Gavgani AS (1999) Age, acquired immunity and the risk of visceral leishmaniasis: a prospective study in Iran. Parasitology 119, 247257.
  • Desjeux P (2004) Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 27, 305318.
  • Hailu A (1990) Pre- and post-treatment antibody levels in visceral leishmaniasis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 673675.
  • El Harith A, Kolk AH, Leeuwenburg J et al. (1988) Improvement of a direct agglutination test for field studies of visceral leishmaniasis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 26, 13211325.
  • Jacquet D, Boelaert M, Seaman J et al. (2006) Comparative evaluation of freeze-dried and liquid antigens in the direct agglutination test for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (ITMA-DAT/VL). Tropical Medicine & International Health 11, 17771784.
  • Joshi A, Narain JP, Prasittisuk C et al. (2008) Can visceral leishmaniasis be eliminated from Asia? Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 45, 105111.
  • Koirala S, Karki P, Das ML, Parija SC & Karki BM (2004) Epidemiological study of kala-azar by direct agglutination test in two rural communities of eastern Nepal. Tropical Medicine & International Health 9, 533537.
  • Kumar R, Pai K, Pathak K & Sundar S (2001) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for recombinant K39 antigen in diagnosis and prognosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 8, 12201224.
  • Kurkjian KM, Vaz LE, Haque R et al. (2005) Application of an improved method for the recombinant k 39 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect visceral leishmaniasis disease and infection in Bangladesh. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12, 14101415.
  • Moreno EC, Goncalves AV, Chaves AV et al. (2009) Inaccuracy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using soluble and recombinant antigens to detect asymptomatic infection by Leishmania infantum. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 3, e536.
  • Pedras MJ, De Gouveaviana L, De Oliveira EJ & Rabello A (2008) Comparative evaluation of direct agglutination test, rK39 and soluble antigen ELISA and IFAT for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 102, 172178.
  • Rijal S, Uranw S, Chappuis F et al. (2010) Epidemiology of Leishmania donovani infection in high-transmission foci in Nepal. Tropical Medicine & International Health 15(Suppl. 2), 2128.
  • Romero HD, De Almeida Silva L, Silva-Vergara ML et al. (2009) Comparative study of serologic tests for the diagnosis of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 2733.
  • Saha S, Ramachandran R, Hutin YJ & Gupte MD (2009) Visceral leishmaniasis is preventable in a highly endemic village in West Bengal, India. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 103, 737742.
  • Schenkel K, Rijal S, Koirala S et al. (2006) Visceral leishmaniasis in southeastern Nepal: a cross-sectional survey on Leishmania donovani infection and its risk factors. Tropical Medicine & International Health 11, 17921799.
  • Sinha PK, Bimal S, Pandey K et al. (2008) A community-based, comparative evaluation of direct agglutination and rK39 strip tests in the early detection of subclinical Leishmania donovani infection. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 102, 119125.
  • Sundar S, Singh RK, Maurya R et al. (2006) Serological diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis: direct agglutination test versus rK39 strip test. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 100, 533537.
  • Westgard JO, Barry PL, Hunt MR & Groth T (1981) A multi-rule Shewhart chart for quality control in clinical chemistry. Clinical Chemistry 27, 493501.
  • Wright PF, Nilsson E, Van Rooij EM, Lelenta M & Jeggo MH (1993) Standardisation and validation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques for the detection of antibody in infectious disease diagnosis. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 12, 435450.
  • Zijlstra EE, Daifalla NS, Kager PA et al. (1998) rK39 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Leishmania donovani infection. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 5, 717720.