Feature page


Antibiotics

Adherence to the new WHO malaria guidelines would lead to a large number of febrile illnesses being confirmed to be non-malarial. Without the skills and capacity to differentiate the causes of non-malarial fevers in poor settings, a significant increase in the inappropriate use of antibiotics in sub-Saharan Africa will occur. 142–144

A review of the susceptibility of community-acquired pathogens to antibiotics in Africa and Asia in neonates indicates poor susceptibility to almost all commonly used antibiotics in pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella spp. Only Streptococcus pneumoniae exhibited good susceptibility to all drugs other than cotrimoxazole. 145–151

A pilot surveillance study of antimicrobial use in poor settings raised issues related to methodology and logistics of long-term surveillance. Use measured as percentage of prescriptions is easier and more reliable. 152–161

Dengue

The use of insecticide-treated curtains rapidly declines over time and is mainly determined by their perceived effectiveness. This must be taken into account if such curtains are to be introduced in dengue control programs. 162–173

Maps of the spatial distribution of vectors and human hosts, based on public data and on a combination of empirical and mechanistic approaches, can be overlaid to produce a vector-to-host ratio map. 174–185

Kala-azar

Risk factors for relapse were assessed in patients treated for VL in 2002-2004. Factors associated with relapse were delay in diagnosis, profound anemia, and age under 1 year. 186–192

HIV/AIDS

In Indonesia scaling up of community clinics for VCT to improve access, promote earlier detection and treatment would permit the hospital clinic to focus on treatment of AIDS patients. 193–199

In a double-blind study, 2% of Ugandan adults using abacavir developed clinical hypersensitivity; none were HLA-B*5701 positive. Prospective HLA-B*5701 screening may have limited clinical utility in East Africa. 200–204

An evaluation in Cambodia showed sustained good immunovirological outcomes after 4 years of ART. Only 10% of patients had CD4 counts <200 cells/μl and 4% a detectable viral load. 205–213

The widespread use of mobile phones offers scope for exploiting mobile phone technology and infrastructure for healthcare purposes in poor settings. 214–216

First-line antiretroviral therapy of didanosine, lamivudine, and efavirenz or nevirapine resulted in sustained HIV viral suppression and immunological recovery in a 9-year cohort study in Senegal. 217–222

Malaria

Genetic variability does not explain the poor performance of Plasmodium vivax RDTs by detecting aldolase in isolates from ROK. 223–226

Hygiene

Escherichia coli and antibiotic residues in fresh unpasteurized cow milk in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana call for improved farm hygiene, milk pasteurization and sensible use of antibiotics by dairy farms. 227–232

Hand fecal indicator bacteria levels on mothers’ hands in east Africa are influenced by a variety of household activities and by handwashing behavior. 233–239

Child health

Intestinal parasite infections are endemic in West Bank. Health education and sanitation are needed. 240–244

Women’s health

In KwaZulu-Natal, 90% of women perform vaginal practices whose safety is largely unknown. 245–256

Ancillary