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Medical Guidelines

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

The transfer of evidence-based medical guidelines to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is often difficult because recommendations may not be useful there, or because local adaptations lack a sufficient evidence-base. 144–146

Malaria

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

In 5 malaria-endemic countries, the availability of malaria RDTs in private healthcare facilities appears limited, and product quality may be low. Regulation, training and quality control will be needed to ensure that accurate and reliable parasite-based diagnosis is integrated into malaria case management in the private health sector. 147–152

In maritime Togo, the severity of malaria was not associated with higher multiplicity of infections and did not appear restricted to particular genotypes. More comprehensive explorations such as immunity, genetic factors, the nutritional and sociologic status of the population could clarify the situation. 153–160

HIV/AIDS

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

Approximately half of heterosexual HIV transmission in South Africa can be attributed to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but improvements in STI treatment have had limited impact on HIV incidence. 161–168

In Malawi, the use of virologic assessment forms produced little improvement in virologic screening during routine care; a large proportion of immunologic failure patients remained unidentified. 169–176

Maternal Health

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

The burden of severe acute maternal morbidity due to abortion is much greater than what is reported for deaths due to abortion, in countries where abortion is thought to be unsafe. But the heterogeneity in definitions makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. 177–190

In Uganda, foods which are rich in vitamin C may improve the vitamin status of women of reproductive age and reduce the occurrence of pre-eclampsia. 191–196

Healthcare Costs

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

Pneumonia is a common cause of outpatient visits to hospital of under-5 children in Fiji, and the associated costs, both to the government health sector and to households, are significant. 197–203

Beneficiaries of the Malawian Social Cash Transfer Scheme use cash transfers to improve their situation and mitigate the impact of AIDS on their families. 204–210

Antibiotic Use

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

Five WHO household surveys show that antibiotics are widely available and inappropriately used in African communities; symptoms and patterns of care-seeking have the greatest influence on decisions to take antibiotics. 211–222

Migrant Health

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

Higher mortality among refugees and immigrants than among the native population should lead to reflections on medical reception systems in recipient countries and possibilities of access to specialised diagnostic and curative healthcare. 223–230

Diagnostics

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

With few adaptations, recommendations for collection practices for tuberculosis in developing countries appear to be valuable for improving laboratory confirmation, and consequently, control measures for pneumonic plague. 231–234

Morphology

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

A newly developed multiplex PCR can differentiate the aquatic stages (larvae and pupae) of morphologically similar Aedes species in Orissa, India. 235–243

Leprosy

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

Leprosy detection rates by age group show a pronounced decrease in younger ages, compatible with reduction of the infection risk in the last 30 years. 244–246

Blood Transfusion

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

The relatively high prevalence of viral markers in first-time blood donors and the remarkably high incidence of infections in repeat donors raise concerns. 247–253

Rotavirus

  1. Top of page
  2. Medical Guidelines
  3. Malaria
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Maternal Health
  6. Healthcare Costs
  7. Antibiotic Use
  8. Migrant Health
  9. Diagnostics
  10. Morphology
  11. Leprosy
  12. Blood Transfusion
  13. Rotavirus

588 Rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhoea in under-fives in Guatemala, highlighting the potential health benefits of vaccination and the need for continued surveillance to assess its impact and effectiveness. 254–259