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- Materials and methods
Objectives To understand the utilisation of prenatal care and hospitalised delivery among pregnant Muslim women in Ningxia, China, and to explore the effectiveness of the integrated interventions to reduce maternal mortality.
Methods Cross-sectional surveys before and after the intervention were carried out. Using multistage sampling, 1215 mothers of children <5 years old were recruited: 583 in the pre-intervention survey and 632 in the post-intervention study. Data on prenatal care and delivery were collected from face-to-face interviews. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) data were obtained from the local Maternal and Child Mortality Report System.
Results After the intervention, the MMR significantly decreased (45.5 deaths per 100 000 live births to 32.7 deaths). Fewer children were born at home after the intervention than before the intervention (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08–0.15). The proportion of women who attended prenatal care at least once increased from 78.2% to 98.9% (OR, 24.55; 95% CI, 11.37–53.12). The proportion of women who had prenatal visit(s) in the first trimester of pregnancy increased from 35.1% to 82.6% (OR, 8.77; 95% CI, 6.58–11.69). The quality of prenatal care was greatly improved. Effects of the intervention on the utilisation of maternal care remained significant after adjusting for education level and household possessions.
Conclusions The findings suggest that integrated strategies can effectively reduce maternal mortality.
Objectifs: Comprendre l’utilisation des services de soins prénataux et l’accouchement à hôpital chez les femmes musulmanes enceintes de Ningxia, en Chine et étudier l’efficacité des interventions intégrées visant à réduire la mortalité maternelle.
Méthodes: Des surveillances transversales avant et après l’intervention ont été réalisées. En utilisant un échantillonnage à plusieurs niveaux, 1215 mères d’enfants de <5 ans ont été recrutées, 583 dans l’enquête pré-intervention et 632 dans l’étude post-intervention. Les données sur les soins prénataux et de l’accouchement ont été recueillies par des interviews de face-à-face. Les données sur le taux de mortalité maternelle (TMM) ont été obtenues à partir du système local de report de la mortalité maternelle et infantile.
Résultats: Après l’intervention, le TMM a diminué significativement (45,5 à 32,7 décès pour 100.000 naissances vivantes). Moins d’enfants sont nés à la maison après l’intervention qu’avant l’intervention (OR: 0,11; IC95%: 0,08 à 0,15). La proportion de femmes qui ont reçu au moins une fois des soins prénataux a augmenté de 78,2%à 98,9% (OR: 24,55; IC95%: 11,37 à 53,12). La proportion de femmes ayant eu au moins une consultation prénatale dans le premier trimestre de la grossesse est passée de 35,1%à 82,6% (OR: 8,77; IC95%: 6,58 à 11,69). La qualité des soins prénataux a été fortement améliorée. Les effets de l’intervention sur l’utilisation des services de soins de santé maternelle restaient significativement importants après ajustement pour le niveau d’éducation et les biens du ménage.
Conclusions: Les résultats suggèrent que les stratégies intégrées peuvent efficacement réduire la mortalité maternelle.
Objetivos: Entender la utilización de cuidados prenatales y partos hospitalarios entre mujeres musulmanas embarazadas en Ningxia, China, y explorar la efectividad de las intervenciones integradas para reducir la mortalidad materna.
Métodos: Se llevaron a cabo estudios croseccionales antes y después de las intervenciones. Utilizando un muestreo multietapa, se reclutaron 1215 madres de niños <5 años, 583 en el estudio pre-intervención y 632 en el estudio post-intervención. Se recolectaron datos sobre los cuidados prenatales y el parto a partir de entrevistas cara a cara. Los datos sobre la tasa de mortalidad materna (TMM) se obtuvieron del sistema local de vigilancia de mortalidad materno infantil.
Resultados: Después de la intervención, la TMM disminuyó significativamente (45.5 muertes por 100,000 nacidos vivos a 32.7 muertes). Nacieron menos niños en casa después de la intervención que antes de ella (OR 0.11, 95%IC 0.08 a 0.15). La proporción de mujeres que recibieron cuidados prenatales al menos una vez aumentó del 78.2% al 98.9% (OR 24.55, 95%IC 11.37 a 53.12). La proporción de mujeres que tuvieron visita(s) prenatales durante el primer trimestre del embarazo aumentó del 35.1% al 82.6% (OR 8.77, 95%IC 6.58 a 11.69). La calidad de los cuidados prenatales había mejorado en gran medida. Los efectos de la intervención sobre la utilización de los cuidados maternos continuaban siendo significativos después de ajustar para el nivel de educación y el nivel de riqueza del hogar.
Conclusiones: Los hallazgos sugieren que las estrategias integradas pueden reducir efectivamente la mortalidad materna.
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- Materials and methods
The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is not solely the most fundamental indicator for women and children’s health, but an internationally acknowledged indicator to reflect a country’s social and human development. Through the fifth goal of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG5), countries have committed to reducing the MMR by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 (Lozano et al. 2011), but progress towards reaching MDG5 has been slow (Hill et al. 2007; Chatterjee & Paily 2011) and must be accelerated.
China has the largest population in the world. Although the MMR in China decreased from 95 deaths per 100 000 live births in 1990 to 47.7 deaths in 2005 (WHO 1999, 2007), the challenge to accomplish MDG5 persists. According to the annual report of health statistics in China, the MMR in rural areas of China was 53.8 deaths per 100 000 live births in 2005, much higher than that of 25.0 deaths in urban areas (MOH China, 2005). Therefore, promoting maternal health in rural China, especially poor and remote areas, has been top of the agenda of the Chinese government. Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China is one of the provinces in this area.
Data published by the annual health statistics of China in 2006 suggested that obstetric haemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal death (50.0%), followed by indirect causes (26.7%) and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (6.7%) in Ningxia of China (MOH China 2006). At least 60% of all maternal deaths in Ningxia of China were caused by factors that can either be prevented or averted successfully through the provision of essential obstetrical care (Khan et al. 2006; Ronsmans et al. 2006; Mathers et al. 2009). An intervention study in Tanzania indicated that the incidence of post-partum haemorrhage fell significantly from 32.9% to 18.2% with the improved performance of health staff through short-term training (Sorensen et al. 2011). Another study in Tanzania found significant reductions in infections among post-partum women who used clean delivery kits and were managed with the hygienic procedures recommended by WHO (Winani et al. 2007). A systematic review of observational studies showed that haemoglobin levels increased by 11.3 g/l in developing countries, and the prevalence of maternal anaemia dropped from 33.3% to 20.0% after providing iron-folic acid supplementation to pregnant women (Sanghvi et al. 2010).
Other strategies such as community mobilisation, establishing maternity waiting homes (MWH), free access to prenatal care and institutional delivery as well as policy making also contributed to reducing maternal deaths (Campbell et al. 2006). The strategy of comprehensive interventions is effective in reducing maternal deaths, such as the large-scale intervention in reducing maternal mortality in Sri Lanka (Fernando et al. 2003; Prata et al. 2010). Hence, comprehensive interventions were part of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) project in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China from 2006 to 2010. To our knowledge, few studies have reported utilisation of maternal healthcare services among Muslim pregnant women. Owing to their religious customs and the disadvantaged socioeconomic status, women in Ningxia may have special needs for maternal healthcare services. Our study aimed to understand the utilisation of prenatal care and hospitalised delivery among pregnant Muslim women in Ningxia, China, and to explore the effectiveness of the integrated interventions to reduce their mortality.
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- Materials and methods
In the pre-intervention survey, of 717 caregivers, 583 (81.3%) were the mothers. In the post-intervention survey, of 757 caregivers, 632 (83.4%) were the mothers of the children. After excluding questionnaires with missing values or mistakes, 554 mothers in the pre-intervention group and 622 in the post-intervention group were analyzed. The groups did not differ significantly with respect to mothers’ age, ethnicity, number of children, gender and age of the youngest child (Table 1). However, mothers in the post-intervention group were better educated than those in the pre-intervention group. More mothers in the post-intervention group had primary (P < 0.001) and secondary or higher education (P = 0.012). Moreover, more households at post-intervention group than at pre-intervention group had a telephone (P < 0.001), a refrigerator (P < 0.001) and a colour TV set (P < 0.001).
Table 1. Characteristics of mothers and their youngest children in pre- and post-intervention
| N ||%|| N ||%|
|Characteristics of mothers|
| Age (years old)|
| Maternal education|
| Secondary or higher||122||22.1||189||30.4|
| Numbers of children|
| 1 at least||344||62.4||363||59.5|
| Household characteristics of the mothers|
| Have telephone||250||45.4||583||93.7|
| Have refrigerator||44||8.0||134||21.8|
| Have colour TV set||433||78.4||601||96.6|
|Characteristics of the youngest child|
| Age (months)|
Table 2 shows the mothers’ utilisation of maternal healthcare services. At the post-intervention survey, the proportion of mothers with at least one prenatal visit was 98.9%, higher than the proportion of 78.2% before the intervention (OR, 24.55; 95% CI, 11.37–53.12). The proportion of those with at least four visits was 70.7% post-intervention, much higher than 22.6% pre-intervention (OR, 8.26; 95% CI, 6.21–10.97). Moreover, the proportion of those with a prenatal visit during the first trimester of pregnancy was 82.6%, statistically significantly higher than the proportion of 35.1% pre-intervention (OR, 8.77; 95% CI, 6.58–11.69). Table 2 also shows the components of prenatal care among mothers who had received prenatal care during their last pregnancy. At the post-intervention survey, 97.4% of women had an ultrasound examination and 95.1% had their blood pressure measured. Around 90% of women had fundal height measured. Women post-intervention were more likely to receive any of these components than those pre-intervention (P <0.05).
Table 2. Utilization of maternal care
|Variables||Baseline||Post-intervention||OR (95%CI)||Adjusted OR* (95%CI)|
| n/N||%|| n/N||%|
|Prenatal care coverage|
| At least once||433/554||78.2||615/622||98.9||24.55 (11.37–53.12)||10.91 (4.93–24.13)|
| 4 or more visits||98/433||22.6||435/615||70.7||8.26 (6.21–10.97)||8.24 (6.11–11.12)|
| 5 or more visits||56/433||12.9||335/615||54.5||8.05 (5.83–11.11)||8.89 (6.30–12.55)|
| Prenatal visit at first trimester||152/433||35.1||508/615||82.6||8.77 (6.58–11.69)||8.84 (6.56–11.91)|
|Place of the first prenatal visit|
| Village clinic||9/429||2.1||10/605||1.6||0.78 (0.32–1.94)||0.98 (0.40–3.19)|
| Township hospital||147/429||34.3||226/605||37.4||1.14 (0.88–1.48)||1.02 (0.81–1.78)|
| Health institution at county or above||273/429||63.6||369/605||60.9||0.89 (0.69–1.15)||0.94 (0.82–1.55)|
|Components of prenatal care|
| Weight||46/433||10.6||360/615||58.5||11.87 (8.41–16.77)||11.08 (8.27–17.43)|
| Blood pressure||198/433||45.7||584/614||95.1||23.10 (15.29–34.91)||14.22 (9.21–21.97)|
| Blood test||56/433||12.9||410/614||66.8||13.53 (9.75–18.76)||12.46 (8.49–18.28)|
| Urine test||138/430||32.1||497/613||81.1||9.06 (6.81–12.06)||7.90 (5.66–11.02)|
| Fundal height||154/413||37.3||551/615||89.6||14.47 (10.44–20.07)||12.15 (8.35–17.65)|
| B ultrasound||377/432||87.3||598/614||97.4||5.45 (3.07–9.65)||5.01 (2.90–10.45)|
| Institutional delivery||234/535||43.7||540/622||86.8||8.47 (6.34–11.30)||5.69 (4.06–7.99)|
| Cesarean section||18/234||7.7||48/540||8.9||1.17 (0.66–2.05)||1.30 (0.66–2.53)|
| Home delivery||300/535||56.0||81/622||13.0||0.11 (0.08–0.15)||0.17 (0.12–0.24)|
| Hygienic delivery||147/300||49.0||58/81||71.6||2.62 (1.54–4.47)||2.51 (1.46–4.30)|
Delivery information is also reported in Table 2. After the intervention, 86.8% of women delivered in a hospital, much higher than the proportion of 43.7% at the pre-intervention survey (OR, 8.47; 95% CI, 6.34–11.30). Although we did not validate self-reported delivery places by individual medical records, we examined hospital statistics in the 4 project counties and found that the number of hospital deliveries in the four county-level hospitals increased from 2126 in 2005 to 8762 in 2009. These data at least partly substantiated the self-reported increase in hospital deliveries. Among women not delivering at hospital, the proportion of hygienic delivery was 71.6% in the post-intervention survey, higher than 49.0% in the pre-intervention survey (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.54–4.47).
The effects of the intervention on the utilisation of maternal care remained significant after adjusting for education level and household possession. Results from logistic regression analysis showed that mothers in the post-intervention group were more likely to use prenatal care services than those in the pre-intervention group (adjusted OR, 10.91; 95% CI, 4.93–24.13) and to choose to give birth in hospital (adjusted OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 4.06–7.99).
As shown in Figure 2, MMR in project areas decreased from 45.5 per 100 000 live births in 2005 to 32.7 per 100 000 live births in 2010. The numbers of maternal deaths fluctuated in these years, from 10 in 2005 to 14 in 2006 and 2007, five in 2008, seven in 2009, and eight in 2010. With the stable number of live births, the increased MMR from 2005 to 2006 was probably due to the improved reporting of maternal deaths when the information system was enhanced by the intervention. After the implementation of the intervention, MMR in the project areas decreased gradually to the level similar to the average MMR in general rural areas in China, 30.1 per 100 000 live births according the newly released Health Statistical Yearbook.
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- Materials and methods
This pre- and post-intervention observational study showed that an integrated strategy of maternal care components effectively reduced maternal mortality in a poor rural region of China.
A major limitation of our study was that the causal effects of the intervention on the increased utilisation of maternal health service and decreased maternal mortality (Sibbald & Roland 1998) could not be well examined because of the lack of control group and randomisation. However, the current study is the first prospective observational study on the impacts of integrated interventions on the utilisation of prenatal care and institutional delivery services in a Hui/Muslim minority area in China. In the project areas, the most important intervention was to improve the knowledge and behaviours of pregnant women and to promote prenatal care and hospitalised delivery. Therefore, it is highly possible that the improved utilisation of maternal care and reduced maternal deaths in the project areas is attributable to the improved access to and quality of prenatal care and hospital delivery.
Another limitation was recall error in the self-reported data in this study (Schmier & Halpern 2004; Fransson et al. 2008). Our data on prenatal care and delivery were based on mothers’ self reports rather than medical records. Under- or over-reporting of recommended practices cannot be excluded. However, major life events, such as pregnancy and the birth of a child, may decrease the recall error (Belli 1998). Our study findings concur with Bhutta’s study that concluded that an intervention promoting preventive maternal and newborn care can result in care-seeking behaviour change for mothers during pregnancy and childbirth and lead to beneficial health outcomes (Bhutta et al. 2011).
We found an evident decrease in maternal mortality in project areas, which could be explained by the several interventions. Establishment of MWH played an important role in promoting delivery at hospital and decreasing maternal mortality as a result. The purpose of MWH is to provide a setting where pregnant women with clinical and social problems can stay near a hospital (WHO 1996). As the beginning of the 20th century, MWH have existed in Northern Europe to serve women in remote geographic areas with few obstetric facilities (WHO 1996; van Lonkhuijzen et al. 2009). In Africa, one of the early experiments with MWH was in Eastern Nigeria. It helped to reduce MMR in hospitals from 10 to <1 per 1000 deliveries (Poovan et al. 1990). Similarly, in Cuba, maternal mortality fell from 118 to 31 per 100 000 live births after the establishment of MWH (van Lonkhuijzen et al. 2009). MWH have been shown to be an effective intervention to improve maternal outcomes in many settings where access to hospitals is limited (Eckermann 2006; Eckermann & Deodato 2008). In the project areas, especially in mountainous areas and remote villages, it is difficult to reach health facilities in an emergency because of extreme weather conditions in winter or the rainy season. According to the pre-intervention survey, a large proportion of pregnant women gave birth at home before the establishment of MWH. However, institutional delivery increased significantly in the project areas after the establishment of MWH.
The economic barrier was another important factor impacting hospital delivery. This includes the cost of delivery services at hospital, the transportation cost from home to health facilities and back and lost labour and production during absences from the village (Richard et al. 2010; Feng et al. 2011). Given the low income in the project areas, the majority of the pregnant women could not afford the transport and other related fees. Hence, a policy was developed to provide a subsidy for delivery at hospital, prenatal visits and post-natal visits for pregnant women. The increased utilisation of these services in the project areas could partly explain the improved maternal health.
Poor-quality obstetric service is a key barrier to reaching MDG5 (Anwar et al. 2009; Li et al. 2011). Therefore, particular attention was given to improve the capacity of maternal health providers by the project. Active learning opportunities including case discussions, hands-on training sessions, interactive workshops and reinforced training sessions were provided. In addition, there is evidence of association between the use of prenatal service and the maternal mortality (Varma et al. 2011). Firstly, there was a negative association between the number of prenatal visits and perinatal death (Vonderheid et al. 2007; Ayoola 2011). The contact established between the pregnant woman and healthcare providers is an ideal opportunity to provide health education on life style, taking advantage of the women’s increased motivation to decrease the risk for the baby. In our study, the proportion of those who had had four or five visits post-intervention was higher than that pre-intervention, indicating that contact opportunities between the pregnant woman and the healthcare providers had been established. Secondly, consensus about the importance of the first prenatal visit is well established (Ochako et al. 2011). The guidelines for prenatal care in China recommended that the first prenatal visit occur before 12 weeks of gestation. Our results showed that after the intervention, 82.6% of pregnant women received their first prenatal visit during the first trimester. It greatly increased the contact opportunities between the pregnant woman and their healthcare providers. Thirdly, the components of prenatal service have a real impact on maternal mortality, especially in developing countries (WHO 2006). The WHO guidelines clearly stated that prenatal care visits should include blood pressure measurement, urine testing, blood testing and weight/height measurement (Kirkham et al. 2005). Our study found that the proportions of women having the above-mentioned components increased to different degrees at post-intervention survey, indicating the enhanced quality of prenatal care after intervention.
Lastly, community mobilisation was another essential strategy (USAID 2007). In Ren’ study, pregnant women of the Hui minority were the most important target population of health education, because Han pregnant women are more likely to receive prenatal care (Ren 2010). Moreover, men were perceived superior to women in the project areas because of the traditional Hui culture. Therefore, the project not only included pregnant women, but also their husbands and family members in the target population of social mobilisation. At the same time, local influential people including village leaders, village doctors and religious leaders (imams) were also encouraged to participate in the health promotion activities to maximise the effectiveness.
In summary, an integrated strategy, including training of obstetricians for obstetric care, establishment of MWH, providing free delivery in hospital, development of a feasible package of MCH care, together with community-based health promotion was effective in reducing maternal mortality.