Prevalence of the group 1 Dermatophagoides allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 in homes with no dogs, healthy dogs and Dermatophagoides-sensitized atopic dogs in Liverpool

Authors

  • ELEANOR RAFFAN,

    1. The University of Liverpool Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Crown Street, Liverpool, L7 7EX, UK
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  • HELEN LAWRENCE,

    1. The University of Liverpool Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Crown Street, Liverpool, L7 7EX, UK
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  • THOMAS HENDERSON,

    1. The University of Liverpool Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Crown Street, Liverpool, L7 7EX, UK
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  • SARAH NELSON,

    1. The University of Liverpool Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Crown Street, Liverpool, L7 7EX, UK
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  • DIANA ISHERWOOD,

    1. The University of Liverpool Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Crown Street, Liverpool, L7 7EX, UK
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  • CLAIRE McARDLE,

    1. The University of Liverpool Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Crown Street, Liverpool, L7 7EX, UK
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  • TIM NUTTALL

    Corresponding author
    1. The University of Liverpool Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Crown Street, Liverpool, L7 7EX, UK
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  • TH and SN were supported by a bursary from the Nuffield Foundation administered by Merseyside SetPoint.

Tim Nuttall, The University of Liverpool Small Animal Hospital, Crown Street, Liverpool, L7 7EX, UK. E-mail: timn@liv.ac.uk

Abstract

Abstract Dermatophagoides farinae is a frequent allergen in canine atopic dermatitis despite its reported scarcity in the UK, and the aim of this study was to determine whether dogs were uniquely exposed to this species. Der f 1 and Der p 1 in dust collected from living room carpets, bedroom carpets and dog beds of 13 houses with no dogs, 13 with healthy dogs, and 16 with Dermatophagoides-sensitized atopic dogs were quantified by ELISA. Der p 1 levels (µg g−1 house dust) were significantly higher than Der f 1 in living rooms (Der p 1 median = 1.9, 95% CI = 2.05–6.32, n = 42; Der f 1 median = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.01–0.06, n = 42), bedrooms (Der p 1 median = 4.35, SD = 5.52; Der f 1 median = 0.01, 95% CI = 0.001–0.1, n = 42) and dog beds (Der p 1 median = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.4–8.1, n = 29; Der f 1 median = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.01–0.04, n = 29) (P < 0.0001). Living rooms in houses without dogs had significantly greater Der p 1 levels (median = 7.0, 95% CI = 3.53–15.8, n = 13) than houses with healthy (median = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.44–3.49, n = 13) or atopic dogs (median = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63–2.42, n = 16) (P = 0.0004). Environmental flea control in living rooms and washing dog beds was associated with significantly reduced Der p 1 levels. This confirms that D. pteronyssinus is common but D. farinae is rare in the sampling area. Apparent sensitization to D. farinae is probably due to cross-reaction. A combination of environmental measures could reduce allergen exposure.

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