Prevalence of genes for enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and exfoliative toxin among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from canine origin

Authors

  • Jang W. Yoon,

    1. Advanced Human Resource and Research Group for Medical Science (BK21), Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 143-701, Korea
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    • Both authors contributed equally to this work.Sources of Funding The Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (R11-2002-103) and the Second-Phase of the BK (Brain Korea 21) Project to J.W.Y.

  • Gi-Jong Lee,

    1. Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
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    • Both authors contributed equally to this work.Sources of Funding The Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (R11-2002-103) and the Second-Phase of the BK (Brain Korea 21) Project to J.W.Y.

  • So-Young Lee,

    1. Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
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  • Chul Park,

    1. Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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  • Jong-Hyun Yoo,

    1. Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
    2. BK21 Basic & Diagnostic Veterinary Specialist Program for Animal Diseases, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
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  • Hee-Myung Park

    1. Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
    2. BK21 Basic & Diagnostic Veterinary Specialist Program for Animal Diseases, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
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  • Conflict of Interest
    No conflicts of interest have been declared.

Hee-Myung Park and Jong-Hyun Yoo, Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea. E-mail: parkhee@konkuk.ac.kr and vetims@yahoo.co.kr

Abstract

A total of 74 Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains were isolated from the 99 clinical cases of canine pyoderma or chronic otitis in our veterinary teaching hospital during May 2006–February 2008. In this study, we examined the genetic distribution of staphylococcal pyogenic toxins such as staphylococcal enterotoxins A (sea), B (seb), C (sec), D (sed), E (see), and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst) as well as the previously characterized S. intermedius exfoliative toxin (siet) among those isolates. The polymerase chain reaction analyses with the toxin gene-specific primers revealed that 18 (24.3%) of 74 S. pseudintermedius isolates carried the sec genes, but none of the sea, seb, sed, see and tst genes. Further DNA sequencing analysis of the amplified sec genes revealed that they all belonged to the canine type C staphylococcal enterotoxin (SECcanine) whose superantigenic activity has been demonstrated. In addition to the seccanine genes, our polymerase chain reaction results showed that all the 74 isolates carried the siet gene. Since both SECcanine and SIET toxins are known to be biologically active, it would be interesting to investigate how those toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of the canine diseases by S. pseudintermedius such as pyoderma or chronic otitis.

Résumé

Un total de 74 colonies de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius a été isoléà partir de 99 cas cliniques de pyodermites canines ou d’otites chroniques au sein de notre hopital d’enseignement vétérinaire entre mai 2006 et février 2008. Dans cette étude, nous avons examiné, parmi ces isolats, la distribution génétique des toxines pyogènes staphylococciques telles que les entérotoxines staphylococciques A (sea), B (seb), C (sec), D (sed), E (see), et la toxine 1 du syndrome de choc toxique (tst) aussi bien que la toxine exfoliative S. intermedius (siet) précédemment caractérisée. Les analyses par PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) à l’aide des amorces spécifiques de gène de toxine a révélé que 18 (24.3%) des 74 souches de S. pseudintermediusétaient porteuses du gène sec, mais aucun des gènes sea, seb, sed, see, et tst. Une analyse plus poussée des séquençages d’ADN des gènes sec amplifiés ont montrés qu’ils appartenaient tous à l’entérotoxine staphylococcique de type C (SECcanine) dont l’activité de superantigène a été démontrée. En plus des gènes seccanine, nos résultats de PCR ont mis en évidence que tous les 74 isolats portaient le gène siet. Etant donné que les toxines SECcanine et SIET sont connues pour être biologiquement actives, il serait intéressant d’étudier comment ces toxines sont impliquées dans la pathogénie des maladies canines dues àS. pseudintermedius telles que les pyodermites ou les otites chroniques.

Resumen

Un total de 74 cepas de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius se aislaron de 99 casos clínicos de pioderma canina o de otitis crónica en nuestro hospital veterinario entre Mayo del 2006 y Febrero del 2008. En este estudio, examinamos la distribución genética de las toxinas piogénicas tales como enterotoxina estafilococia A (sea), B, (seb), C (sec), D (sed), E (see) y toxina de síndrome de choque 1 (tst) además de la toxina previamente caracterizada toxina exfoliativa de S. intermedius (siet) entre estos aislados. El análisis por reacción de polimerasa en cadena (PCR) con iniciadores específicos de los genes de las toxinas revelo que 18 (24,3%) de 74 aislados de S. pseudintermedius portaban genes sec, pero ningún gen sea, seb, sed, see ni tst. Un análisis de secuenciación de DNA más detallado de los genes sec amplificados indicó que todos pertenecían al tipo C de enterotoxina estafilococica (SEC canino) cuya actividad superantigénica ha sido demostrada. Además de los genes seccanino, nuestros resultados de PCR mostraron que los 74 aislados portaban el gen siet. Ya que ambas toxinas SECcaninay SIET son biológicamente activas, seria interesante investigar como están implicadas en la patogénesis de las enfermedades caninas producidas por S. pseudintermedius como pioderma y otitis crónica.

Zusammenfassung

In unserem Veterinary Teaching Hospital wurden von Mai 2006 bis Februar 2008 insgesamt 74 Staphylococcus pseudointermedius Stämme von 99 klinischen Fällen mit caniner Pyodermie oder chronischer Otitis isoliert. In dieser Studie untersuchten wir die genetische Verteilung von pyogenen Staphylokokkentoxinen, wie Staphylokokken Enterotoxin A (sea), B (seb), C (sec), D (sed), E (see) und Toxic-shock-syndrom-Toxin 1 (tst), sowie das bereits beschriebene S. intermedius exfoliative Toxin (siet) unter den Isolaten. Eine Polymerasekettenreaktion (PCR) Analyse mit den Toxin-Gen-spezifischen Primern zeigte, dass 18 (24,3%) der 74 S. pseudointermedius Isolate das sec Gen trugen, aber keines der sea, seb, sed, see und tst Gene. Die weitere DNA Sequenzanalyse der amplifizierten sec Gene zeigte, dass sie alle zum caninen Typ C Staphylokokken Enterotoxin (SECcanine) gehören, dessen Superantigen Aktivität bereits gezeigt worden ist. Zusätzlich zu den seccanine Genen zeigten unsere PCR Ergebnisse, dass alle 74 Isolate das siet Gen trugen. Da sowohl SECcanine als auch SIET Toxine bekanntermaßen biologisch aktiv sind, wäre es interessant zu untersuchen, in wie weit diese Toxine in der Pathogenese der caninen Erkankungen, die durch S. pseudointermedius verursacht werden, wie Pyodermie oder chronische Otitis, eine Rolle spielen.

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