Competition between Ridolfia segetum and sunflower



Studies on competition between Ridolfia segetum Maris, and sunflower (Helianthemum annuus L.) were conducted at eight locations in southern Spain in 1990 and 1991. in order to define competition models and to estimate from these economic thresholds as affected by crop inputs and potential yields. Competition losses in sunflower crops ranged from 19% to 56% of weed–free yields. There were slightly better correlations between percentage sunflower reduction and weed density than with weed dry weight, (−0.66 and −0.59, respectively). The weed competitive index, or sunflower crop dry weight reduction per unit dry weight of R. segetum, was 1.09. The percentage yield losses due to weed density (NPRt) were fitted to multiple linear, quadratic, exponential and hyperbolic models. The hyperbolic equation, %RSY=100 (1+1/b*NPRt)−1, where b=0.14 and is the R. segetum competitive ability index, had the lowest error sum of squares (SSE), and gave the best biological explanation for the competition response. Early emergence (before mid–March) made weeds about 1.5 times more competitive than late emergence. The economic threshold to offset the cost of a shallow post–emergence tillage, assuming 70% control efficiency, ranged from about 2.5 plants m −2 for low–yielding crops(1200kgha−1) to less than one plant m−2 for higher–yielding crops (2800 kg ha−1).