The importance of seeds and sexual reproduction in the population biology of Cirsium arvense - a literature review



In this review the available information on the sexual reproduction of Cirsium arvense L. (Scop.) is summarized and discussed in an ecological context. Certain aspects of its sexual reproduction system have given C. arvense a reputation for low efficiency: the dioecious mating system and dependence on insects for pollination and non-adaptive features for wind dispersal. The seeds are moderately persistent in soil and, for a temperate weed, have a high temperature requirement for germination. It is concluded that the contribution that sexual reproduction makes to the survival and spread of this species has been underestimated, partly owing to an inadequate number of studies. Seedling recruitment via sexual reproduction may be an important mechanism for initiating continued genetic diversity at intra- and inter-population levels.