• acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase;
  • ACCase;
  • herbicide;
  • PCR;
  • resistance;
  • sequencing


Primers were designed to amplify two regions involved in sensitivity to herbicides inhibiting the plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) from grasses (Poaceae). The first primer pair amplified a 551-bp amplicon containing a variable Ile/Leu codon at position 1781 in Alopecurus myosuroides sequence. The second primer pair amplified a 406-bp amplicon containing four variable codons (Trp/Cys, Ile/Asn, Asp/Gly, Gly/Ala) at positions 2027, 2041, 2078 and 2096, respectively, in A. myosuroides sequence. Both primer pairs amplified the targeted fragments from genes encoding plastidic ACCases, but not from the very similar genes encoding cytosolic ACCases. Clear DNA sequences were obtained from fresh or dried plant material from the field, and from 29 various grass species. Sequences revealed that the gene encoding plastidic ACCase in Poa annua and Festuca rubra contained a Leu1781 codon, in agreement with both species being inherently tolerant to herbicides inhibiting ACCase. Sequencing confirmed the hybrid origin of P. annua. Compared with ACCase enzyme assay, polymerase chain reaction is faster, can be performed from a single plant and suppresses the need for radioactive experiments. It can be completed with basic molecular biology laboratory equipment. It is the tool of choice for diagnosing resistance caused by alteration(s) of the plastidic ACCase.