• acetyl-CoA carboxylase;
  • alomy;
  • bioassay;
  • cultural practice survey;
  • genotyping;
  • herbicide resistance mechanism;
  • large-scale study;
  • metabolism


We assessed the contributions of target site- and non-target site-based resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in Alopecurus myosuroides (black grass). A total of 243 A. myosuroides populations collected across France were analysed using herbicide sensitivity bioassay (24 300 seedlings analysed) and ACC genotyping (13 188 seedlings analysed). Seedlings resistant to at least one ACC-inhibiting herbicide were detected in 99.2% of the populations. Mutant, resistant ACC allele(s) were detected in 56.8% of the populations. Among the five resistant ACC alleles known in A. myosuroides, alleles containing an isoleucine-to-leucine substitution at codon 1781 were predominant (59.5% of the plants containing resistant ACC alleles). Comparison of the results from herbicide sensitivity bioassays with genotyping indicated that more than 75% of the plants resistant to ACC-inhibiting herbicides in France would be resistant via increased herbicide metabolism. Analysis of herbicide application records suggested that in 15.9% of the populations studied, metabolism-based resistance to ACC-inhibiting herbicides was mostly selected for by herbicides with other modes of action. Our study revealed the importance of non-target site-based resistance in A. myosuroides. Using herbicides with alternative modes of action to control populations resistant to ACC-inhibiting herbicides, the recommended management approach, may thus be jeopardised by the widespread occurrence of metabolism-based resistance mechanisms conferring broad-spectrum cross-resistance.