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ABSTRACT: Of 3,079 children in a medium-sized community near Jerusalem, 11.2% were found to be infested with living lice and eggs and another 23.4% had only nits. Boys and girls were equally infested. The incidence of infestation was highest among children4–11 years of age. About 78% of the infested children had from one to ten lice. Approximately 80% of the infested children had nits that were 2–5cm away from the scalp. Boys with medium length hair and girls with short hair showed the highest incidence of lice infestation. Children with brown and red hair were more infested than those with black and blond hair. Boys and girls with straight and wavy hair were more infested than those with curly and frizzy hair.