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Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Polish university dermatology in the 19th century
  5. Prominent Polish dermatologists in the years 1850–1950
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

The beginnings of Polish dermatology date back to the first half of the 19th century in Kraków. The first textbook of dermatology was written by Ludwik Bierkowski. Later the progress in the development of this field of medicine was due to Franciszek Krzyształowicz, Marian Grzybowski, Franciszek Walter, and Jan Alkiewicz. Krzyształowicz's most remarkable achievements were related to his studies of the Treponema pallidum of syphilis. Grzybowski's main contribution to international dermatology was the first description in the medical literature of a specific variant of keratoacanthoma, which has since then been called Grzybowski's eruptive keratoacanthoma or generalized eruptive keratoacanthoma – Grzybowski's variant. Alkiewicz described trachyonychia, or twenty-nail dystrophy, a disease that became well established in the dermatological literature; he also described the so-called transverse net in onychomycosis. Walter identified the syphilitic skin and bone lesions in some figures carved in the Veit Stoss's altar in Kraków, thus presenting the famous thesis of the non-American origin of syphilis in Europe. Considering all these achievements, it is the goal of this paper to review Polish contributions to international dermatology.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Polish university dermatology in the 19th century
  5. Prominent Polish dermatologists in the years 1850–1950
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

Skin diseases have been known to Polish doctors for a long time, particularly the common conditions, such as scabies, leprosy, or syphilis. Polish dermatology owes its development to university and hospital centers located all over Poland, as well as to individual medical practitioners who, following their studies at medical universities in Poland and abroad, conducted medical research, often in difficult political conditions caused by the fact that Poland lost its independence as a result of having been partitioned by its powerful neighbors (i.e. Russia, Prussia, and Austria) (Fig. 1). The Polish cities of Warsaw, Kraków, Lvov, Vilnius, and Poznań were the main centers of dermatological research in that period.

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Figure 1. The Partition of Poland, 1772–1918

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Dermatology in Poland, and Polish dermatology (which seems to be a more appropriate term for the period of the history when Poland was erased from the map of Europe and occupied by the three neighboring countries), had had a long and interesting tradition of more than 140 years. The first aim of the study is to present the major aspects of this history that might be of international relevance. The second aim is to show the interrelations between Polish and European medicine and dermatology. It is quite obvious that Polish dermatology owes much to the development of European science. However, it is much less known in the international clinical and scientific milieu how it contributed and enriched European or even worldwide dermatology.

This study is confined to the description of the achievements of several deceased famous Polish dermatologists. The study of the modern period in the history of Polish dermatology (the last 50 years) will certainly be continued in the future.

To understand the specific conditions of the development of medicine in Poland, it should be recalled that, as it was mentioned above, Poland lost its independence at the end of the 18th century when it was occupied by three neighboring countries: Russia, Prussia, and Austria. The occupying powers systematically obstructed the development of the universities in the main Polish cities, that is, Wilno, Lvov, Warsaw, and, to a lesser extent also in Kraków. The academic and scholarly activities were also very much constrained by the invaders. For a very long time there were no Polish scientific journals and hardly any scientific societies. Most Polish candidates for the medical profession were forced to study medicine abroad, in Vienna, Berlin, Saint Petersburg, and Saratov, because there was only one Medical Faculty in Poland, located at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. This quite often meant studying in more than one foreign university, usually followed up by postgraduate fellowships at various renowned hospital clinics. On the other hand, these international relationships helped Polish dermatologists to acquire a high level of expertise, necessary for establishing high scholarly and academic standards in Polish dermatology. Academic life in Poland in the 20th century was only slightly easier than in the 19th century. After the First World War and the recovery of statehood and independence, there were about 20 years of freedom, which resulted in quick progress in medicine, including dermatology. However, this newly gained medical infrastructure and clinical stabilization were completely destroyed during the Second World War. Moreover, the Yalta Conference divided Poland again, giving a huge part of its eastern territory to Soviet Russia. Lvov and Vilnus, two genuinely Polish cities for hundreds years, both with a great tradition of clinical and academic dermatology, were joined to Russia (the other two, Wrocław, formerly Breslau, and Szczecin, formerly Stettin, which before the war belonged to Germany, were joined to Poland). The reconstruction of the country and its scientific resources after the war losses was greatly hindered by Soviet occupation, which led to isolating Polish medical sciences, including dermatology, from the Western scholarly communities.

Polish university dermatology in the 19th century

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Polish university dermatology in the 19th century
  5. Prominent Polish dermatologists in the years 1850–1950
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

Poland's first independent dermatology clinic was established in Kraków, at the Jagiellonian University, in 1863 and its management was assumed by Antoni Rosner (1831–1896), the first professor of dermatology. It should, however, be stressed that the development of dermatology as an independent medical discipline goes back much earlier and is also strictly connected with the Jagiellonian University. The first lecturer in dermatology was Ludwik Bierkowski, a professor of surgery, since at that time skin diseases were routinely treated by surgeons as specialists of the so-called “internal” diseases. In 1833, Professor Bierkowski published a textbook entitled Choroby syfilityczne, czyli weneryczne, oraz sposoby ich leczenia (Syphilitic, or Venereal, Diseases and Means of Treatment).1,2

The year 1920 saw the establishment of an independent dermatology clinic in Warsaw, located in a building converted from former Russian army barracks. The clinic was organized from scratch by Franciszek Krzyształowicz (1868–1931), a professor of dermatology at the Jagiellonian University. Until 1920 Professor Krzyształowicz held the position of the head of university dermatology clinic in Kraków. In 1926, he wrote the first part of his textbook entitled Etiologia i patogeneza chorób skórnych (Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Skin Diseases) and in 1928 he published a comprehensive textbook on skin diseases, in which he was the first scholar to base the division of skin diseases on etiological factors. His successor in the department of dermatology and an editor of the second edition of the textbook in 1932 was Professor Marian Grzybowski (1895–1949).1–5

A dermatology clinic at the University of Poznań was established in 1922 at the skin and venereal department of the municipal hospital in Poznań. The position of the head of the clinic was entrusted to Adam Karwowski, the head of the department. Adam Karwowski (1873–1933) was qualified as assistant professor at the University of Poznań in 1922. The reviewer of Karwowski's theses was Professor Franciszek Krzyształowicz. Until 1923, when Karwowski was made professor and the first director of the dermatology clinic, he focused on the organization and adaptation of the hospital department to meet the needs of the clinic.2

In 1894, a faculty of medicine was established at the University of Lvov. Several years later, the position of the head of dermatology department was offered to Włodzimierz Łukaszewicz, who was a professor of dermatology at the University of Innsbruck at the time. Professor Łukaszewicz was a disciple and an assistant to Moritz Kaposi, a renowned Vienna dermatologist. Thanks to the efforts of Łukaszewicz, a new imposing building housing the independent dermatology clinic was opened in Lvov in 1914.1,2

The first dermatology center in Vilnius was the Sawicz hospital established in 1744 by Bogusław Kowin-Gosiewski, a chapter prelate of the diocese of Vilnius and the bishop of Smolensk. The hospital was the only center providing dermatology courses to Polish medical practitioners under the Russian rule during the Partitions of Poland. An independent dermatology clinic at the University of Vilnius was established in 1924. The first director of the clinic was Professor Zdzisław Sowiński (1872–1934), who held the position of assistant professor of dermatology at the Medical Academy in Saint Petersburg from 1907 and the professor and director of the dermatology clinic in Saratov from 1917.

In 1920, shortly after the end of the First World War and Poland's regaining independence, a group of outstanding Polish dermatologists headed by Franciszek Krzyształowicz set up the Polish Association of Dermatology with branches in Warsaw, Kraków, Lvov, Poznań, Vilnius, Łódź, and Lublin.

Polish dermatology specialists also held important and prestigious positions at medical centers abroad. The first professor of dermatology at the St. Vladimir University of Kiev and a founder of the Kiev's Dermatology Clinic – the first clinic of this type in Russia – was Professor Ludwik Górecki. It was only later that the Clinic of Skin and Venereal Diseases was established at the Medical and Surgical Academy in Saint Petersburg, headed by Professor Tarnovsky, a renowned Russian dermatologist. From 1907 an assistant reader in skin and venereal diseases at the Academy was Zdzisław Sowiński, who was later made a professor of dermatology in Saratov. Sowiński was also an organizer of the Dermatology Clinic and a professor at the Stefan Batory University in Vilnius in 1922 (cf. Modzelewski). Karol Szadek was the head of the dermatology and venereology department in Kiev, Leopold Glück held the position of the head of department in Sarajevo, while Ernest Finger was an assistant professor at the University of Vienna. Also, Polish dermatologists made a significant contribution to medical literature published abroad in the second half of the 19th century. For example, an analysis of articles published in the Archiv für Dermatologie und Syphilis journal between 1869 and 1900 reveals 52 papers published by Polish authors (cf. Gutowski).1

Prominent Polish dermatologists in the years 1850–1950

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Polish university dermatology in the 19th century
  5. Prominent Polish dermatologists in the years 1850–1950
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

The development of dermatology in Poland was due to some eminent physicians and scientists, the most prominent of whom were Franciszek Krzyształowicz, Marian Grzybowski, Jan Alkiewicz, and Franciszek Walter.

Franciszek Krzyształowicz (1868–1931) (Fig. 2), a dermatologist, an initiator of the etiology-based division of skin diseases. Krzyształowicz was an outstanding dermatologist and venereologist, a rector of the Warsaw University, a head of university clinics in Kraków and Warsaw, and a president of the Polish Young Men's Christian Association branch. Krzyształowicz conducted pioneering research into pathogenic fungi of the scalp, isolating fungal strains that were most common in Poland and describing their characteristic features using Sabouraud medium in 1914.2–5

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Figure 2. Professor Franciszek Krzyształowicz

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Franciszek Krzyształowicz received a comprehensive medical education and participated in research internship programs in the best medical research centers in Europe at the time. Krzyształowicz graduated from the Jagiellonian University in 1892. In the period from 1892 until 1899, Krzyształowicz worked at the St. Lazarus Hospital in Kraków in the departments of internal medicine, surgery, and skin and venereal diseases under the supervision of Professor Antoni Rosner. In 1899 Krzyształowicz started his 6-month training period in Professor Paul Gerson Unna's (1850–1929) clinic in Hamburg. He spent most of the internship in the histopathology laboratory, in which he acquired excellent research skills. In recognition of his research contribution, Krzyształowicz was granted Paul Gerson Unna Award in 1900 for his works on elastin and skin degeneration.6 In the same year, Krzyształowicz made a research trip to Paris, where he worked at L. Malassez's skin histopathology laboratory at the College de France together with J. Darrier (1856–1938). A number of drawings and specimens later included by J. Darrier in his dermatology textbook were created in that period by Krzyształowicz. During his 5-month stay in Paris, Krzyształowicz also visited A. Fournier's and H. Hallopeau's departments and R. Sabouraud's (1864–1938) bacteriology laboratory at Hôpital Saint-Louis. In 1901, the Dermatology Society in Paris granted Krzyształowicz the Zambaco Pacha award for his histopathology tests of syphilitic eruptions. In 1904 Krzyształowicz made another trip to visit Professor Unna in Hamburg and Professor Sabouraud in Paris. In 1911, he went to Paris again, this time to study methods of radium treatment at Wickham and Degrais’ radium therapy center. The visit later contributed to the establishment of the Radium Institute in Warsaw. Krzyształowicz cooperated with the following scientific journals: Monatshefte für praktische Dermatologie, Enzyklopädie fur mikroskopische Technik, Dermatologische Jahresberichte, Eulenberg's Real-Encyclopädie der gesamten Heilkunde, and Archiv für Dermatologie und Syphilis.2–5

However, Krzyształowicz's most remarkable achievements were related to his studies of the Treponema pallidum of syphilis. The discovery of Treponema pallidum by the German zoologist F. Schaudinn and the presentation of the results of his research at the Berlin Medical Society on May 17, 1905, did not earn him immediate recognition in the scientific world. Schaudinn's observations were regarded as yet another, most probably failed, attempt at discovering the syphilis-causing pathogen. It should be borne in mind that before Schaudinn, a number of researchers had reported the discovery of syphilis bacteria, including van Niessen's bateria, Losterfer's shiny corpuscles, Kremer's fungi or Siegel's Cythorrhyctes luis. At the same time, Krzyształowicz made observations similar to Schaudinn's and presented them, together with relevant microscopic preparations containing Treponema pallidum, at a session of the Kraków Medical Society on July 5, 1905.7 As early as in August 1905 Krzyształowicz, along with his collaborator zoologist Siedlecki, published their joint findings in Przegląd Lekarski (Fig. 3) and in Monatshefte für praktische Dermatologie. In the following year, they presented a more detailed description of Treponema pallidum, including its shape, form, size, characteristic movements, hypothetical and observed means of propagation. The observations were included in a comprehensive monograph entitled Morfologia krêtka bladego (Morphology of Treponema pallidum) published in 1908 and then reprinted in Balcer's dermatology textbook published in 1908 in Paris.8 Also, fragments of text, pictures and drawings from the book were quoted in Traite de syphilis, a comprehensive textbook edited by Professor Jeanselme, published in 1931 in Paris.2–5

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Figure 3. Krzyształowicz's publication in Przegląd Lekarski in August 1905 concerning Treponema pallidum

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Another major achievement of Krzyształowicz's was his deep conviction that dermatology was a part of internal medicine, while skin lesions were a manifestation of systemic diseases. In his Etiologia i patogeneza chorób skórnych (Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Skin Diseases), Krzyształowicz wrote that “there are virtually no skin diseases that would affect the skin only, without having an impact on other organs.9 The skin is, in fact, an organ that is very well prepared for all external factors and the degree of these functions is individual.” As evidence, he gives the example of the action of light and processes taking place under its influence in the skin: “red rays of light act as heat and penetrate deeply. Violet rays are partially absorbed by the skin's pigment and partially by the hemoglobin in blood capillaries, which becomes charged with these chemical rays.” Going even further in his observations concerning the etiology of skin diseases, he noticed that “the quality of inflammatory reaction in the skin is determined by biochemistry whose quality depends on the general functions of the whole system or the condition of separate organs.” He went on to claim that the chief causes of skin diseases were internal factors, e.g. disturbances of the natural balance in various body systems. It is only in such cases that external factors trigger skin diseases that are, at the same time, diseases of the whole body. The classification of skin diseases based on this principle (including skin diseases related to endocrinological, hematological, and neurological disorders and intoxication) and presented in Krzyształowicz's textbook was one of the first classifications of this type in international literature on dermatology. Later, around 1930, the German Professor Rost introduced a similar etiology-based division of skin diseases in his textbook.2–5

Krzyształowicz's research into the etiology of skin diseases was later used in studies on bacterial diseases, particularly on the effects of streptococci and staphylococci. Thanks to the works of Krzyształowicz, Unna, Sabouraud, and Kapusciñski it was demonstrated that cocci were able to cause chronic skin inflammations. However, it is also there that Krzyształowicz upheld his views on the relation between the skin and the overall condition of the body. In his 1923 article, Krzyszta-łowicz wrote: “in the course of pathology research, we become increasingly convinced that individual disposition and the quality of reaction capacity in the body, understood as the body's defense capacity against a poison, are more important factors determining the expansion of lesions in body tissues than the quantity or particular species of microbes.”10 These claims, stemming from the Sabouraud-Krzyształowicz concept, were accepted by a number of renowned dermatologists, including Gougerot in France and Jadassohn in Germany.2–5

Another major area of Krzyształowicz's research was eczema. Krzyształowicz restricted the concept of eczema as a skin condition, referring to chronic forms of purulent skin infection indicated by Sabouraud and Gougerot and classifying a considerable group of pathological changes as epidermo-dermatitis microbica Gougerot.11 In his work “O wyprysku” (“On eczema”) and at the International Congress of Dermato-logists held in 1930 in Copenhagen, Krzysztołowicz divided pathological lesions referred to as eczema into:

  • 1
    seborrheic forms developing in the skin infected with purulent cocci;
  • 2
    a group of eczematous lesions occurring in prurigo patients; and
  • 3
    a group of occupational (industrial) dermatoses developing due to the influence of physical and chemical factors combined with the effects produced by purulent cocci.12

Krzyształowicz published 75 research papers in Polish, French, German, English, and Serbian, as well as a two-volume work entitled Etiologia i patogeneza chorób skórnych (Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Skin Diseases) and Choroby skóry (Skin Diseases).2–5,8,13

In 1927 in Warsaw, Krzyształowicz together with Professor Samberger from Prague initiated the idea of a society of Slavic-speaking dermatologists. An organizing committee headed by Professor Krzyształowicz was established in the Warsaw Clinic. The Association of Slavic Dermatologists was eventually founded in May 1928 at the Slavic Congress of medical practitioners in Prague and Krzyształowicz was appointed the first president of the association. It was also agreed that the first congress of Slavic dermatologists would be held in 1929 in Warsaw. The congress proved a huge organizational and scientific success. In the following years, Krzyształowicz was appointed an honorary member of the Czechoslovakian, Yugoslavian, and Bulgarian dermatology societies. At the 8th International Congress of Dermatology held in Copenhagen in 1930, Krzyształowicz was elected as a member of the so-called Council of Seven (among 42 nations) – the highest instance of the international dermatology organization at the time. At the same time Krzyształowicz was appointed an honorary member of the French Societe francaise de prophilaxie sanitaire et morale and an honorary member of the Danish Dermatology Society. His scientific achievements were also rewarded with official state decorations, including the Order of Polonia Restituta and the French Legion of Honour.2–5

After Krzyształowicz's death, Sabouraud in his letter to Profesor Grzybowski wrote that “Professor Krzyształowicz was one of international dermatology authorities and the loss will soon be felt everywhere”.2

Professor Marian Grzybowski (1895–1949) (Fig. 4) was a disciple, collaborator, and successor of Professor Krzyształowicz, managing the Dermatology Clinic in Warsaw after his death. Grzybowski published over 80 research papers, both in Poland and abroad, and is commonly regarded as one of Poland's most outstanding dermatologists of the 20th century.14

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Figure 4. Professor Marian Grzybowski

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Although his medical interests were broad, they can be grouped into four main fields. First, he was interested in the histopathology of the skin, including skin atrophy, leukemias, mycosis fungoides, cysticercosis of the skin, epitheliomas, erythema nodosum, lichen sclerosus, sclorodermia, and dermatomyositis.15–17 His works devoted to Bowen disease and to Kaposi sarcoma are still valuable and up-to-date.18,19 His considerations of associations between poikiloderma and scleroderma, and dermatomyositis evidenced his deep understanding of these diseases.20 His description of dermatomyositis in the German literature did not lost its value; he was also the first to define connective tissue diseases and autoimmune diseases.17 His histopathology description of erythema nodosum in the French literature continued Miescher's classical works.15 His second field of interest were studies devoted to different pharmacological agents used to treat skin diseases, i.e. gold in lupus erythomatosus, insulin in psoriasis, and acytylarsen in lues.21–23 Third, Grzybowski was deeply interested in lues, especially in recurrent exenthema induced by the treatment with bismuth and salvarsan, the value of Wassermann test, syphilimetria, the problem of death in the early lues, immunity to and allergy in lues.24 Fourth, he was keen on the etiopathophysiology of psoriasis, especially analysing the metabolism changes in the disease, studying its relationship with endocrine disorders and the possibilities of insulin treatment.21,25,26 However, his main contribution to international dermatology was the first description in the medical literature of a specific variant of keratoacanthoma (Fig. 5)27 which has since then been called Grzybowski's eruptive keratoacanthoma or generalized eruptive keratoacanthoma – Grzybowski's variant.28–34

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Figure 5. Grzybowski's publication in British Journal of Dermatology and Syphidology in 1950 concerning generalized keratoacanthoma

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Professor Jan Alkiewicz (1896–1979) (Fig. 6) studied medicine at the Universities of Wrocław, Munich, and Poznań. In 1925 he went to Paris for his medical internship. In Professor Jeanselme's clinic and Professor Sabouraud's microbiology laboratory, he studied modern dermatology and mycology. The two scientists had a tremendous influence on Alkiewicz's works. In the period 1928–1933, Jan Alkiewicz underwent a range of trainings under the supervision of well-known dermatologists, including Professor Józef Jadassohn in Wrocław, Professor Oskar Gans in Frankfurt am Main, and Professor Walter Friboes in Berlin. His whole professional life, both before and after the Second World War, Alkiewicz spent in Poznań.35 From the beginning of his medical career, his main research focus was mycology and nail diseases.36,37 A key to exploring the pathology of the nail organ was Alkiewicz's development of a new method of softening the nail material that was very hard to cut and dying it in microscopic tests. Alkiewicz's first works concerned the cellular structure of nails. After the Second World War, Alkiewicz reorganized the mycology laboratory that was used both by the Dermatology Department and for research purposes.35 In 1950, Alkiewicz described trachyonychia, or twenty-nail dystrophy, a disease that became well established in dermatological literature.38 He also described the so-called transverse net in onychomycosis.39 The branching net was described by Professor Witold Sowiński, Alkiewicz's student. Professor Jan Alkiewicz left 103 research papers, of which 23 concerned onychology. Four monographs deserve particular mention: Grzybice skóry (Skin Mycoses) (1955), Bibliografia dermatologii i wenerologii (Bibliography of Dermatology and Venereology) (1957), Mikologia lekarska (Medical Mycology) (1966) and Atlas chorób paznokci (Atlas of Nail Diseases) (1976). The Atlas, published in cooperation with Professor R. Pfister, was a truly unique work (Fig. 7). Alkiewicz's recognition in medical circles was confirmed when he became the only Polish dermatologist whose works were published in Handbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten (Berlin, 1964), edited by Professor Jadassohn. In recognition of his high scientific status, Professor Alkiewicz was also invited to become a member of editor panels of such journals as Przegląd Dermatologiczny, Mycopathologia et Mycologia applicata and Mykosen. The year 1972 brought Alkiewicz another honor – he was awarded a Gold Medal of the Arts-Sciences-Lettres Academic Society, granted in recognition of outstanding achievements in science and literature.35

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Figure 6. Professor Jan Alkiewicz

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Figure 7. The cover page of the R. Pfistera and J. Alkiewicz's Atlas der Nagelkrankenheiten

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Professor Franciszek Walter (1885–1950) did his postgraduate fellowship at the Dermatology Department of Jadassohn in Bern, and established close relationships with the well-known Swiss dermatologists, G. Miescherem and W. Lutzem. He also worked at E. Lesser's department in Berlin and in G. Arndt's histopathology laboratory. In parallel with his clinical career, Walter performed many prestigious academic functions; for instance, he was Dean of the Medical Faculty, and later Rector of the Jagiellonian University.40

Walter identified syphilitic skin and bone lesions in some figures of the altar of Veit Stoss in Kraków, presenting the famous thesis of the non-American origin of syphilis in Europe.41

Veit Stoss (born in Horb in 1447 or 1448, died in Nuremberg in 1533), a sculptor, painter and engraver, an outstanding representative of the late Gothic style, began his artistic activity in Kraków in 1477. In the High Altar at St. Mary's Church in Kraków Veit Stoss represented in detail clinical cases of many skin diseases, a fact confirmed by Franciszek Walter's examination conducted in 1933. Walter, a professor of dermatology at the Jagiellonian University, conducted his analyses as the great altar triptych was being renovated, and pointed out a number of dermatology-related details. He observed that in some of the altar's eit Stoss represented typical features of a number of skin diseases, with remarkable proficiency and faithfulness to the clinical picture, which allowed the dermatologist to recognize diseases that different Veit Stoss's models suffered from.40,41

Conclusion

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Polish university dermatology in the 19th century
  5. Prominent Polish dermatologists in the years 1850–1950
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

The beginnings of Polish dermatology date back to the first half of the 19th century. The modern dermatology was developed due to Franciszek Krzyształowicz, Marian Grzybowski, Franciszek Walter, and Jan Alkiewicz. Krzyształowicz's most remarkable achievements were related to his studies of the Treponema pallidum of syphilis. Grzybowski's main contribution to international dermatology was the first description in the medical literature of a specific variant of keratoacanthoma, which has since then been called Grzybowski's eruptive keratoacanthoma or generalized eruptive keratoacanthoma – Grzybowski's variant. Alkiewicz described trachyonychia, or twenty-nail dystrophy, a disease that became well established in the dermatological literature; he also described the so-called transverse net in onychomycosis. Walter identified the syphilitic skin and bone lesions in some figures carved in the Veit Stoss's altar in Kraków, thus presenting the famous thesis of the non-American origin of syphilis in Europe.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Polish university dermatology in the 19th century
  5. Prominent Polish dermatologists in the years 1850–1950
  6. Conclusion
  7. References
  • 1
    Gutowski W. Polska dermatologia i wenerologia na przełomie XIX, i, XX wieku [Polish dermatology and venerology between the XIXth and the XXth centuries]. Archiwum Historii Medycyny 1971; XXXIV: 425429.
  • 2
    Straszyński A. Zarys historii dermatologii ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem rozwoju dermatologii w Polsce [Outline of the history of dermatology, with the special consideration to the development of Polish dermatology]. Poznań 1939.
  • 3
    Gołębiowska I. Dzieje kliniki dermatologicznej Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego (1862–1918), [The history of Department of Dermatology of Jagiellonian University 1862–1918]. Archiw Hist Med 1958; 21: 116119.
  • 4
    Karwowski A. 1p. Prof dr Franciszek KrzyształOwicz. Now Lek 1931; 23: 730731.
  • 5
    Modzelewski C. Zasługi Franciszka Krzyształowicza na polu dermatologii [Franciszek Krzyształowicz's contributions in the field of dermatology]. Archiw Hist Fil Med 1948; 19: 160.
  • 6
    Krzyształowicz F. Inwieweit vermögen alle bisher angegeben spezifischen Färbungen des Elastins auch Elacin zu färben? Monatshefte für praktische Dermatologie 1900; T.XXX: 265292.
  • 7
    Krzyształowicz F, Siedlecki M. Krętek blady Schaudinna w zmianach kiłowych [Schaudinne's Treponema pallidum in syphilitic lesions]. Przegl Lek 1905: 31: 497500.
  • 8
    Krzyształowicz F, Siedlecki M. Badania doswiadczalne nad kiłą– morfologia krętka bladego [Experimental studies on syphilis – morphology of treponema pallidum]. Rozpr Akadem Umiej Kraków 1908.
  • 9
    Krzyształowicz F. Etiologia i patogeneza chorób skórnych [Etiology and pathogenesis of skin diseases]. Warszawa 1926.
  • 10
    Krzyształowicz F. Rozwój metod badań w dermatologii [Development of diagnostic methods in dermatology]. Przegl Dermat 1923; 2–3: 16.
  • 11
    Krzyształowicz F. Au sujet des manifestations ezcematiformes provoquues par les microbes pyogenes. Acta dermato-venerol Stockholm 1929; 10: 113129.
  • 12
    Krzyształowicz F. Ueber die Ekzemfrage. Dermat Woch 1930; 91: 12011203.
  • 13
    Krzyształowicz F, Grzybowski M. Choroby skóry [Skin diseases]. Warszawa 1932.
  • 14
    Miedziński F, Jabłońska S. 100 rocznica urodzin prof. Mariana Grzybowskiego. (Prof. Grzybowski's 100th anniversary). Przegl Dermat 1995; 82: 393398.
  • 15
    Grzybowski M, O podstawowej przemianie materii w łuszczycy i jej związku ze zboczeniami gruczołów dokrewnych [Some remarks on the basic metabolism in psoriatic patients in connection with the malfunctioning of endocrine glands]. Przegl Dermat 1929; 24: 353394.
  • 16
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