Background Oral myiasis is usually caused by flies of the order Diptera. One of the causes of human myiasis is Cochliomyia hominivorax, which is a true obligate parasite of mammals.
Methods A case of oral myiasis in a 5-year-old girl is reported. She presented with a swelling on the hard palate accompanied by intense pain and a fetid odor. A literature review of oral myiasis reports in children was performed.
Results The poor oral hygiene, lip incompetence, open bite, and residence in a rural area were considered to be predisposing factors for larval infestation in this patient. Treatment consisted of manual larval removal and systemic therapy with antimicrobials.
Conclusions The prevention of human myiasis should involve the control of fly populations and general cleanliness, such as reducing decomposition odors and cleaning and covering wounds. In addition, the public should be informed that individuals living in locations without basic sanitation are more predisposed to infestation.