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Caring for new mothers: diagnosis, management and treatment of nipple dermatitis in breastfeeding mothers
Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012
© 2012 The International Society of Dermatology
International Journal of Dermatology
Volume 51, Issue 10, pages 1149–1161, October 2012
How to Cite
Heller, M. M., Fullerton-Stone, H. and Murase, J. E. (2012), Caring for new mothers: diagnosis, management and treatment of nipple dermatitis in breastfeeding mothers. International Journal of Dermatology, 51: 1149–1161. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05445.x
The authors do not have any conflicts of interest to disclose.
- Issue published online: 20 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012
Breastfeeding is thought to be the most optimal form of infant nutrition. Nursing mothers are generally advised to continue breastfeeding until the infant is two years of age or beyond. Unfortunately, however, a majority of nursing mothers will discontinue breastfeeding much earlier than recommended. The most common reason for early discontinuation of breastfeeding is nipple pain. It is, therefore, essential that dermatologists know how to appropriately diagnose and effectively treat nipple pain associated with nipple dermatitis among nursing mothers. This review article provides a detailed discussion on the clinical features and management of various causes of nipple dermatitis during lactation, including problems with infant latch-on, congenital oral anomalies, plugged lactiferous ducts, atopic dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, yeast infections, bacterial infections, herpes simplex virus, and Raynaud’s phenomenon of the nipple.