Background Transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) affects up to 10% of patients with Down syndrome (DS). A small proportion of newborns are asymptomatic and only manifest circulating blast cells, with or without leukocytosis, while others present with hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, serous effusions, and liver fibrosis. Few cases in the literature also have skin manifestations, described as crusted, erythematous, vesiculopustular eruptions occurring mainly on the face, with spreading to the trunk and extremities.
Materials and methods Four patients with DS and TMD were studied due to the presence of cutaneous eruptions. Systemic involvement, work-up, and follow-up were documented for each patient. Our results were compared with the previously reported cases.
Results All patients were males, with ages ranging from 1 to 20 days at the time of diagnosis. In three patients, the eruption was papulopustular, and two of them also had vesicles. In one patient, lesions resembled bullous impetigo. In all, the lesions involved the face, followed by the extremities in three and the trunk in two patients. Pathergy phenomena was present in one patient. Hepatomegaly and a leukemoid reaction were present in all patients. Bone marrow showed an M7 immunophenotype in three patients and normal cellularity in one. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 11 months, during which the patients were healthy.
Conclusions Recognition of the cutaneous eruptions associated with TMD in neonate patients with DS may lead to early diagnosis and avoidance of unnecessary chemotherapy. However, because leukemia may develop later, careful follow-up is mandatory in all cases.