Background Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH), and various other clinical conditions. Several of these diseases can occur in association.
Objective Report an association of diseases related to HTLV-1 infection, occurring in an unusual age group.
Methods Dermatological and laboratory exams were consecutively performed in HTLV-1-infected individuals from January 2008 to July 2010 in the HTLV Outpatient Clinic at the Institute of Infectious Diseases “Emilio Ribas” in São Paulo, Brazil.
Results A total of 193 individuals (73 HAM/TSP and 120 asymptomatic carriers) were evaluated, three of which were associated with adult-onset IDH and HAM/TSP. In all three cases, the patients were affected by IDH after the development and progression of HAM/TSP-associated symptoms.
Limitations Small number of cases because of the rarity of these diseases.
Conclusion We draw attention to the possibility of co-presentation of adult-onset IDH in patients with a previous diagnosis of HAM/TSP, although IDH is a disease classically described in children. Thus, dermatologists should be aware of these diagnoses in areas endemic for HTLV-1 infection.