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Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of vector-borne diseases caused by a subset of predominantly intracellular protozoal species of the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous disease may be subdivided into localized, intermediate, and diffuse forms. Intermediate cutaneous leishmaniasis is distributed widely in Latin America and is characterized by cutaneous lesions, which may be accompanied by mucosal disease and demonstrate a tendency toward chronicity and relapse as well as resistance to standard treatment regimens. Leishmania parasites of the subgenus Viannia have been identified as the major etiologic agent of this subset of infections. The present review provides a brief perspective on leishmaniasis followed by a review of classification, transmission, clinical presentation, and evolution of disease, immunology, and current treatment approaches for the intermediate/borderline disseminated subset of cutaneous leishmaniasis.