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Keywords:

  • GARCH;
  • Normal inverse Gaussian distribution;
  • Time varying kurtosis;
  • Time varying skewness;
  • Value at Risk

Summary  A new model for financial returns with time varying variance, skewness and kurtosis based on the Normal Inverse Gaussian (NIG) distribution is proposed. The new model and two previously suggested NIG models are evaluated by their Value at Risk (VaR) forecasts on a long series of daily Standard and Poor's 500 returns. All three models perform very well compared with extant models and clearly outperform a Gaussian GARCH model. Moreover, the results show that only the new model cannot be rejected as providing correct conditional VaR forecasts.