Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has emerged as the commonest cause of end-stage renal disease. Haemodialysis (HD) treatment constitutes a high-risk environment for the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to establish a potential relationship between type 2 DM and HCV infection in HD patients. Of the 267 HD patients, 67 (25.1%) had type 2 DM and 200 (74.9%) were with diverse aetiology for end-stage renal disease. The serum markers of HCV infection were tested by a second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for antibodies and by qualitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction technique for viral RNA. The overall prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA was found to be 12.7% (34/267) and 10.1% (27/267), respectively. Patients with type 2 DM were found to have a higher HCV prevalence compared with non-diabetic patients [20.8% (14/67) vs. 10% (20/200)] (p < 0.05). The mean period on dialysis of anti-HCV-positive patients with type 2 DM was shorter than that observed for anti-HCV-positive non-diabetic patients (43.9 ± 9.8 months vs. 59.7 ± 28.4 months) (p < 0.05). This study has shown that although the period on dialysis of diabetic patients are shorter than non-diabetic patients, the prevalence of HCV in HD patients with type 2 DM is higher than that detected in non-diabetic HD patients.