• 1
    NHS. Sickle Cell and Thalassaemia Screening Programme. Standards for linked antenatal and newborn screening programme, 2007. Available at:, accessed 6 June 2007.
  • 2
    Department of Health. National Service Framework on Maternity and Child Care. Available at:, accessed 5 June 2007.
  • 3
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Antenatal Care: Routine Care for the Healthy Pregnant Woman. Clinical Guideline 6. London: RCOG press, 2006.
  • 4
    Modell B, Anionwu E. Guidelines for screening haemoglobin disorders: service specifications for low-and high-prevalence DHAs. In: Ethnicity & Health: Reviews of Literature and Guidance for Purchasers in the Area of Cardiovascular Disease, Mental Health and Haemoglobinopathies. NHS Centre for Reviews & Dissemination, CRD Report No 5 Series. University of York, 1996.
  • 5
    Locock L, Kai J. Parents’ experiences of universal screening for haemoglobin disorders: implications for practice in a new genetics era. British Journal of General Practice, 2008; 58: 161168.
  • 6
    Thomas P, Oni L, Alli M et al. Antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies in primary care: a whole system participatory action research project. British Journal of General Practice, 2005; 55: 424428.
  • 7
    Neuenschwander H, Modell B. Audit of process of antenatal screening for sickle cell disorders at a north London hospital. British Medical Journal, 1997; 27; 315: 784785.
  • 8
    Petrou M, Brugiatelli M, Ward RHT, Modell B. Factors affecting the uptake of prenatal-diagnosis for sickle-cell disease. Journal of Medical Genetics, 1992; 29: 820823.
  • 9
    Green JM, Hewison J, Bekker HL, Bryant LD, Cuckle HS. Psychosocial aspects of genetic screening of pregnant women and newborns: a systematic review. Health Technology Assessment, 2004; 8: 1.
  • 10
    Reed K. ‘It’s them faulty genes again’: women, men and the gendered nature of genetic responsibility in prenatal blood screening. Sociology of Health & Illness, 2009; 31: 343359.
  • 11
    Anionwu E. The Politics of Sickle Cell and Thalassaemia. Buckingham: Open University Press, 2001.
  • 12
    Atkin K, Ahmed S, Hewison J, Green JM. Decision-making and ante-natal screening for sickle cell and thalassaemia disorders – to what extent do faith and religious identity mediate choice?Current Sociology, 2008; 56: 7798.
  • 13
    Firdous R, Bhopal RS. Reproductive health of Asian women: a comparative study with hospital and community perspectives. Public Health, 1989; 103: 307315.
  • 14
    Ahmad WIU, Atkin K, Chamba R. “Causing havoc among their children: parental and professional perspectives on consanguinity and childhood disability”. In: Ahmad WIU (ed.) Ethnicity, Disability and Chronic Illness. Buckingham: Open University Press, 2000: 2843.
  • 15
    Ahmad WIU, Atkin K. Primary care and haemoglobin disorders: a study of families and professionals. Critical Public Health, 2000; 20: 4153.
  • 16
    Robinson A, Bender BG, Linden MG. Decisions following the intrauterine diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidy. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 1989; 34: 552554.
  • 17
    Dormandy E, Kavalier F, Logan J, Harris H, Ishmael N, Marteau TM. Maximising recruitment and retention of general practices in clinical trials: a case study. British Journal of General Practice, 2008; 58: 759766.
  • 18
    Tsianakas V, Calnan MW, Atkin K, Dormandy E, Marteau TM. Offering antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia screening to pregnant women in primary care: a qualitative study of GPs experiences. British Journal of General Practice, 2010; 60: p822p826.
  • 19
    Dormandy E, Gulliford M, Bryan S et al. Delivering earlier antenatal screening for sickle cell and thalassaemia in primary care: the SHIFT cluster randomised trial. British Medical Journal, 2010; 341: c5132.
  • 20
    NVIVO. QSR International Pty. NVIVO Version 7. ABN 47006357, 2006.
  • 21
    Oakley A. Becoming a Mother. Oxford: Martin Robertson, 1979.
  • 22
    McHanon M. Engendering Motherhood: Identity and Self-transformation in Women’s Lives. New York: The Guildford Press, 1995.
  • 23
    Lupton D. A love/hate relationship: the ideals and experiences of first-time mothers. Journal of Sociology, 2000; 36: 5063.
  • 24
    Tsianakas V, Liamputtong P. Women, Gender and Health: Policies in East Asia, Australia and the Pacific, a Series in the Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2005.
  • 25
    Tsianakas V, Liamputtong P. Prenatal testing: the perceptions and experiences of Muslim women in Australia. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 2002; 20: 724.
  • 26
    Jordan B. Birth in Four Cultures: A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Childbirth in Yucatan, Holland, Sweden, and the United States, 4 edn. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press Inc, 1993.
  • 27
    Ahmed S, Green J, Hewison J. Antenatal thalassaemia carrier testing: women’s perceptions of “information” and “consent”. Journal of Medical Screening, 2005; 12: 6977.
  • 28
    Kabakian-Khasholian T, Campbell O, Shediac-Rizkallah M, Ghorayeb F. Women’s experiences of maternity care: satisfaction or passivity?Social Science and Medicine, 2000; 51: 103113.
  • 29
    Bluff R, Holloway I. ‘They know best’: women’s perceptions of midwifery care during labour and childbirth. Midwifery, 1994; 10: 157164.
  • 30
    Porter M, MacIntyre S. What is must be best: a research note on conservative or deferential responses to antenatal care provision. Social Science & Medicine, 1994; 19: 11971200.
  • 31
    Dyson S. Genetic traits as pollution: ‘White English’ carriers of sickle cell or thalassaemia. In: Kirkham M (ed.) Exploring the Dirty Side of Women’s Health. London: Routledge, 2007: 270283.
  • 32
    Dyson SM, Culley L, Gill C et al. Ethnicity questions and antenatal screening for sickle cell/thalassaemia [EQUANS] in England: a randomised controlled trial of two questionnaires. Ethnicity & Health, 2006; 11: 169189.
  • 33
    Rozario S. Genetics, religion and identity among British Bangladeshis: some initial findings. Diversity in Health and Social Care, 2005; 2: 187196.
  • 34
    Katz Rothmann B. The Tentative Pregnancy. London: Pandora, 1994.
  • 35
    Katz Rothmann B. Rethinking Motherhood. New Brunswick: Reutgers University Press, 2000.
  • 36
    Kukla R. Conscientious autonomy – displacing decisions in health care. Hastings Center Report, 2005; 35: 3444.
  • 37
    Dominelli L. Social Work: Theory and Practice for a Changing Profession. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004.