IgE, IgA, and IgG responses to common yeasts in atopic patients

Authors

  • J. Savolainen,

    1. Department of pulmonary Diseases and Clinical Allergology, Turku Allergy Research Unit MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    2. Department of Pediatrics, Turku Allergy Research Unit MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    3. INSERM U 454. Hôpital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier France
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  • O. Kortekangas-Savolainen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Dermatology, Turku Allergy Research Unit MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
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  • M. Nermes,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Turku Allergy Research Unit MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
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  • M. Viander,

    1. Department of Medical Microbiology, Turku Allergy Research Unit MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
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  • A. Koivikko,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Turku Allergy Research Unit MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
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  • K. Kalimo,

    1. Department of Dermatology, Turku Allergy Research Unit MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
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  • E. O. Terho

    1. Department of pulmonary Diseases and Clinical Allergology, Turku Allergy Research Unit MediCity Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
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Johannes Savolainen Medicity, Turku University Tykistokatu 6 FIN-20520 Turku Finland

Abstract

This study was undertaken to analyze the differences in exposure and sensitization to five common environmental yeasts. The responses of IgG, IgA. and IgE to Candida albicans. C. utilis, Cryptococcus albidus, Rhodotorula rubra, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified S. cerevisiae enolase were analyzed by immunoblotting (IgE-1B), and the cross-reactivity of their IgE-binding components by IgE-1B inhibition. Twenty atopic subjects, with asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis were included. In skin prick tests (SPT), 12 of the patients showed simultaneous reactivity to at least two of the five yeasts, four reacted to one of the yeasts, and four had no responses. Antigens run in SDS-PAGE and transferred to nitrocellulose were probed with enzyme-labeled IgA-, IgG-, and IgE-specific antibodies. The IgE immunoblotting revealed most IgE-binding bands in C. albicans (11 bands) followed by C. utilis (eight bands), S. cerevisiae (five bands), R. rubra (five bands), and Cr. albidus (four bands). Six of the IgE-binding bands of C. albicans and C. utilis shared molecular weight, and only two bands shared molecular weight with other yeasts. These were the 46-kDa band, shared by all five yeasts, and a 13-kDa band shared by four yeasts. Prominent IgE binding was seen to a 46-kDa band of C. albicans (seven patients), C. utilis (five patients), and S. cerevisiae (one patient) and to corresponding weak bands of Cr. albidus and R. rubra (one patient). The possible cross-reactivity of the 46-kDa band was analyzed by IgE-IB inhibition and densitometry, revealing clear C albicans inhibition of C. utilis (80%) and enolase (98%) (autoinhibition 100%). The strongest IgG responses were seen against S. cerevisiae and C albicans. The responses were mainly against mannans of C. albicans and S. cerevisiae, suggesting that most of the exposure is to these yeasts. Yeasts with different types of exposure, from saprophytic growth on human mucous membranes to exposure by air and food, were shown to cross-react at the allergenic level. Atopic patients primarily sensitized by C albicans and S. cerevisiae may develop allergic symptoms by exposure to other environmental yeasts due to cross-reacting IgE antibodies.

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