• 1
    Pichler WJ, Yawalkar N, Schmid S, Helbling A. Pathogenesis of drug induced exanthems. Allergy 2002;57: 884893.
  • 2
    Pichler WJ. Delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. Ann Intern Med 2003;139: 683693.
  • 3
    Pichler WJ, Yawalkar N, Britschgi M, Depta J, Strasser S, Schmid S et al. Cellular and molecular pathophysiology of cutaneous drug reactions. Am J Clin Dermatol 2002;3: 229238.
  • 4
    Naisbitt DJ, Gordon SF, Pirmohamed M, Park BK. Immunological principles of adverse drug reactions: the initiation and propagation of immune responses elicited by drug treatment. Drug Saf 2000;23: 483507.
  • 5
    Hertl M, Geisel J, Boecker C, Merk HF. Selective generation of CD8+ T-cell clones from the peripheral blood of patients with cutaneous reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics. Br J Dermatol 1993;128: 619626.
  • 6
    Britschgi M, Steiner U, Schmid S, Depta JP, Senti G, Bircher A et al. T-cell involvement in drug-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. J Clin Invest 2001;11: 14331441.
  • 7
    Yawalkar N, Egli F, Hari Y, Nievergelt H, Braathen LR, Pichler WJ. Infiltration of cytotoxic T-cells in drug-induced cutaneous eruptions. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30: 847855.
  • 8
    Schnyder B, Frutig K, Mauri-Hellweg D, Limat A, Pichler WJ. T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity against keratinocytes in sulfamethoxazol-induced skin reaction. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28: 14121417.
  • 9
    Barbaud AM, Bene MC, Schmutz JL, Ehlinger A, Weber M, Faure GC. Role of delayed cellular hypersensitivity and adhesion molecules in amoxicillin-induced morbilliform rashes. Arch Dermatol 1997;133: 481486.
  • 10
    Posadas SJ, Leyva L, Torres MJ, Rodriguez JL, Bravo I, Rosal M et al. Subjects with allergic reactions to drugs show in vivo polarized patterns of cytokine expression depending on the chronology of the clinical reaction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106: 769776.
  • 11
    Romagnani S. The Th1/Th2 paradigm. Immunol Today 1997;18: 263266.
  • 12
    Yawalkar N, Shirikhade M, Hari Y, Nievergelt, Braathen LR, Pichler WJ. Evidence for a role for IL-5 and eotaxin in activating and recruiting eosinophils in drug-induced cutaneous eruptions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106: 11711176.
  • 13
    Neukomm C, Yawalkar N, Helbling A, Pichler WJ. T-cell reactions to drugs in distinct clinical manifestations of drug allergy. J Invest Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;11: 275284.
  • 14
    Park BK, Pirmohamed M, Kitteringham NR. Role of drug disposition in drug hypersensitivity: a chemical, molecular, and clinical perspective. Chem Res Toxicol 1998;11: 969988.
  • 15
    Koponen M, Pichler WJ, de Weck AL. T-cell reactivity to penicillin. Phenotypic analysis of in vitro activated cell subsets. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986;78: 645652.
  • 16
    Mauri-Hellweg D, Bettens F, Mauri D, Brander C, Hunziker T, Pichler WJ. Activation of drug specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in individuals allergic to sulfonamides, phenytoin and carbamazepine. J Immunol 1995;155: 462472.
  • 17
    Brander C, Mauri-Hellweg D, Bettens F, Rolli HP, Goldman M, Pichler WJ. Heterogeneous T-cell responses to β-lactam-modified self-structures are observed in penicillin-allergic individuals. J Immunol 1995;55: 26702678.
  • 18
    Zanni MP, Mauri-Hellweg D, Brander C, Weudland T, Schayole B, Frei E et al. Characterization of lidocaine-specific T-cells. J Immunol 1997;158: 11391148.
  • 19
    Schnyder B, Mauri-Hellweg D, Zanni M, Bettens F, Pichler WJ. Direct, MHC-dependent presentation of the drug sulfamethoxazol to human T-cell clones. J Clin Invest 1997;100: 136141.
  • 20
    Zanni MP, von Greyerz S, Schnyder B, Brandes KS, Fritig K, Hari Y et al. HLA-restricted, processing- and metabolism-independent pathway of drug recognition by human αβ T lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 1998;102: 15911598.
  • 21
    Pichler WJ. Pharmacological interaction of drugs with antigen-specific immune receptors: the p-i concept. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;2: 301305.
  • 22
    Barbaud A, Goncalo M, Bruynzeel D, Bircher A. European Society of Contact Dermatitis. Guidelines for performing skin tests with drugs in the investigation of cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Contact Dermatitis 2001;45: 321328.
  • 23
    Barbaud AM, Bene MC, Reichert-Penetrat S, Jacquin-Petit MA, Schmutz JL, Faure GC. ImmunocompetenT-cells and adhesion molecules in 14 cases of cutaneous drug reactions induced with the use of antibiotics. Arch Dermatol 1998;134: 10401041.
  • 24
    Yawalkar N, Hari Y, Frutig K, Egli F, Wendland T, Braathen L et al. T-cells isolated from positive epicutaneous test reactions to amoxicillin and ceftriaxone are drug-specific and cytotoxic. J Invest Dermatol 2000;115: 647652.
  • 25
    Hug K, Yawalkar N, Helbling A, Pichler WJ. Scratch-patch and patch testing in drug allergy – an assessment of specificity. J Invest Allergol Clin Immunol 2003;13: 1219.
  • 26
    Hari Y, Frutig K, Hurni M, Yawalker N, Zanni MP, Schuyder B et al. T-cell involvement in cutaneous drug eruptions. Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31: 13981408.
  • 27
    Pichler WJ, Zanni M, von Greyerz S, Schnyder B, Mauri-Hellweg D, Wendland T. High IL5 production by drug specific T-cell clones. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;113: 177180.
  • 28
    Sachs B, Erdmann S, Malte Baron J, Neis M, Al Masaoudi T, Merk HF. Determination of interleukin-5 secretion from drug-specific activated ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a test system for the in vitro detection of drug sensitisation. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32: 736744.
  • 29
    Schmid S, Kuechler PC, Britschgi M, Steiner UC, Yawalkar N, Limat A et al. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: role of cytotoxic T-cells in pustule formation. Am J Pathology 2002;161: 20792086.
  • 30
    Hertl M, Jugert F, Merk HF. CD8+ dermal T-cells from a sulphamethoxazole-induced bullous exanthem proliferate in response to drug-modified liver microsomes. Br J Dermatol 1995;132: 215220.
  • 31
    Walker C, Kristensen F, Bettens F, DeWeck AL. Lymphokine regulation of activated (G1) lymphocytes: I. Prostaglandin E2-induced inhibition of interleukin 2 production. J Immunol 1983;130: 17701773.
  • 32
    Luque I, Leyva L, Jose Torres M, Rosal M, Mayorga C, Segura JM et al. In vitro T-cell responses to beta-lactam drugs in immediate and nonimmediate allergic reactions. Allergy 2001;56: 611618.
  • 33
    Naisbitt DJ, Farrell J, Wong G, Depta JPH, Dodd CC, Hopkins J et al. Characterization of Skin Homing Lamotrigine-specific T-cells from hypersensitive patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111: 13931403.
  • 34
    Naisbitt DJ, Britschgi M, Wong G, Farrell J, Depta JPH, Chadwick DW et al. Hypersensitivity reactions to carbamazepine: characterization of the specificity, phenotype, and cytokine profile of drug-specific T-cell clones. Mol Pharmacol 2003;63: 732741.
  • 35
    Schnyder B, Pichler WJ. Skin and laboratory tests in amoxicillin- and penicillin-induced morbilliform skin eruption. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30: 590595.
  • 36
    Aberer W, Bircher A, Romano A, Blanca M, Campi P, Fernandez J et al. For ENDA: the EAACI interest group on drug provocation testing in the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions: general considerations. Allergy 2003;58: 854886.
  • 37
    Wuthrich B, Schindler C, Leuenberger P, Ackermann-Liebrich U. Prevalence of atopy and pollinosis in the adult population of Switzerland (SAPALDIA study). Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1995;106: 149156.
  • 38
    Nyfeler B, Pichler WJ. The lymphocyte transformation test for the diagnosis of drug allergy: sensitivity and specificity. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27: 175181.
  • 39
    Sieben S, Kawakubo Y, Al Masaoudi T, Merk HF, Blomeke B. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to paraphenylenediamine is mediated by 2 different pathways of antigen recognition by specific alphabeta human T-cell clones. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109: 10051011.
  • 40
    Phillips EJ, Sullivan JR, Knowles SR, Shear NH. Utility of patch testing in patients with hypersensitivity syndromes associated with abacavir. AIDS 2002;16: 22232225.
  • 41
    Gonzalez FJ, Leyva L, Posadas S, Luque I, Blanca M, Santamaria L et al. Participation of T lymphocytes in cutaneous allergic reactions to drugs. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28(Suppl. 4):36.
  • 42
    Straumann A, Bauer M, Pichler WJ, Pirovino M. Acute pancreatitis due to pyritynol. Gastroenterology 1998;115: 452454.
  • 43
    Osterwalder P, Koch J, Wüthrich B, Pichler WJ, Vetter W. Unklarer status febrilis. Dtsch Med Woschr 1998;123: 761765.
  • 44
    Pichler WJ. Drug-induced autoimmunity. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;3: 249253.
  • 45
    Maria VA, Victorino RM. Diagnostic value of specific T-cell reactivity to drugs in 95 cases of drug induced liver injury. Gut 1997;41: 534540.
  • 46
    Tsutsui H, Terano Y, Sakagami C, Hasegawa I, Mizoguchi Y, Morisawa S. Drug-specific T-cells derived from patients with drug-induced allergic hepatitis. J Immunol 1992;149: 706716.
  • 47
    Schreiber J, Zissel G, Greinert U, Schlaak M, Muller-Quernheim J. Lymphocyte transformation test for the evaluation of adverse effects of antituberculous drugs. Eur J Med Res 1999;4: 6771.
  • 48
    Roujeau JC, Albengres E, Moritz S, Piacentino A, Cuny M, Revuz J et al. Lymphocyte transformation test in drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1985;78: 2224.