• 1
    Von Ehrenstein OS, Von Mutius E, Illi S, Baumann L, Bohm O, von Kries R. Reduced risk of hay fever and asthma among children of farmers. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30: 187193.
  • 2
    Riedler J, Eder W, Oberfeld G, Schreuer M. Austrian children living on a farm have less hay fever, asthma and allergic sensitization. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30: 194200.
  • 3
    Downs SH, Marks GB, Mitakakis TZ, Leuppi JD, Car NG, Peat JK. Having lived on a farm and protection against allergic diseases in Australia. Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31: 570575.
  • 4
    Ernst P, Cormier Y. Relative scarcity of asthma and atopy among rural adolescents raised on a farm. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161: 15631566.
  • 5
    Kilpelainen M, Terho EO, Helenius H, Koskenvuo M. Farm environment in childhood prevents the development of allergies. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30: 201208.
  • 6
    Leynaert B, Neukirch C, Jarvis D, Chinn S, Burney P, Neukirch F. Does living on a farm during childhood protect against asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopy in adulthood? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164(10 Pt 1):18291834.
  • 7
    Von Mutius E, Braun-Fahrlander C, Schierl R, Riedler J, Ehlermann S, Maisch S et al. Exposure to endotoxin or other bacterial components might protect against the development of atopy. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30: 12301234.
  • 8
    Braun-Fahrlander C, Riedler J, Herz U, Eder W, Waser M, Grize L et al. Environmental exposure to endotoxin and its relation to asthma in school-age children. N Engl J Med 2002;347: 869877.
  • 9
    Lauener RP, Birchler T, Adamski J, Braun-Fahrlander C, Bufe A, Herz U et al. Expression of CD14 and Toll-like receptor 2 in farmers’ and non-farmers’ children. Lancet 2002;360: 465466.
  • 10
    Suzuki T, Ohno N, Saito K, Yadomae T. Activation of the complement system by (1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-beta-D-glucans having different degrees of branching and different ultrastructures. J Pharmacobiodyn 1992;15: 277285.
  • 11
    Sakurai T, Ohno N, Yadomae T. Changes in immune mediators in mouse lung produced by administration of soluble (1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-β-D-glucan. Biol Pharm Bull 1994;17: 617622.
  • 12
    Stone B, Clarke A. Chemistry and biology of (1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-β-glucans. Victoria: La Trobe University Press, 1992.
  • 13
    Zhang K, Petty HR. Influence of polysaccharides on neutrophil function: specific antagonists suggest a model for cooperative saccharide-associated inhibition of immune complex-triggered superoxide production. J Cell Biochem 1994;56: 225235.
  • 14
    Goto H, Yuasa K, Rylander R. (1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-β-D-Glucan in indoor air, its measurement and in vitro activity. Am J Ind Med 1994;25: 8183.
  • 15
    Adachi Y, Okazaki M, Ohno N, Yadomae T. Enhancement of cytokine production by macrophages stimulated with (1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-β-D-glucan, grifolan (GRN), isolated from Grifola frondosa. Biol Pharm Bull 1994;17: 15541560.
  • 16
    Omland O. Exposure and respiratory health in farming in temperate zones – a review of the literature. Ann Agric Environ Med 2002;9: 119136.
  • 17
    Radon K, Danuser B, Iversen M, Monso E, Weber C, Hartung J et al. Air contaminants in different European farming environments. Ann Agric Environ Med 2002;9: 4148.
  • 18
    Chew GL, Douwes J, Doekes G, Higgins KM, van Strien R, Spithoven J et al. Fungal extracellular polysaccharides, β(1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-glucans and culturable fungi in repeated sampling of house dust. Indoor Air 2001;11: 171178.
  • 19
    Braun-Fahrlander C. Do only European cattle protect from allergies? Allergy 2002;57: 10941096.
  • 20
    Wickens K, Lane JM, Fitzharris P, Siebers R, Riley G, Douwes J et al. Farm residence and exposures and the risk of allergic diseases in New Zealand children. Allergy 2002;57: 11711179.
  • 21
    Alm JS, Swartz J, Lilja G, Scheynius A, Pershagen G. Atopy in children of families with an anthroposophic lifestyle. Lancet 1999;353: 14851488.
  • 22
    Douwes J, Versloot P, Hollander A, Heederik D, Doekes G. Influence of various dust sampling and extraction methods on the measurement of airborne endotoxin. Appl Environ Microbiol 1995;61: 17631769.
  • 23
    Douwes J, van der Sluis B, Doekes G, van Leusden F, Wijnands L, van Strien R et al. Fungal extracellular polysaccharides in house dust as a marker for exposure to fungi: relations with culturable fungi, reported home dampness, and respiratory symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103(3 Pt 1):494500.
  • 24
    Douwes J, Doekes G, Montijn R, Heederik D, Brunekreef B. Measurement of β(1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-glucans in occupational and home environments with an inhibition enzyme immunoassay. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996;62: 31763182.
  • 25
    Iversen M, Korsgaard J, Hallas T, Dahl R. Mite allergy and exposure to storage mites and house dust mites in farmers. Clin Exp Allergy 1990;20: 211219.
  • 26
    Radon K, Schottky A, Garz S, Koops F, Szadkowski D, Nowak D et al. Distribution of dust-mite allergens (Lep d 2, Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2) in pig-farming environments and sensitization of the respective farmers. Allergy 2000;55: 219225.
  • 27
    Hinze S, Bergmann KC, Lowenstein H, Hansen GN. Cow hair allergen (Bos d 2) content in house dust: correlation with sensitization in farmers with cow hair asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;112: 231237.
  • 28
    Waser M, Schierl R, Von Mutius E, Maisch S, Carr D, Riedler J et al. Determinants of endotoxin levels in living environments of farmers’ children and their peers from rural areas. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34: 389397.
  • 29
    Alm JS, Swartz J, Bjorksten B, Engstrand L, Engstrom J, Kuhn I et al. An anthroposophic lifestyle and intestinal microflora in infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2002;13: 402411.
  • 30
    Bischof W, Koch A, Gehring U, Fahlbusch B, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J. Predictors of high endotoxin concentrations in the settled dust of German homes. Indoor Air 2002;12: 29.
  • 31
    Douwes J, Doekes G, Heinrich J, Koch A, Bischof W, Brunekreef B. Endotoxin and β(1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-glucan in house dust and the relation with home characteristics: a pilot study in 25 German houses. Indoor Air 1998;8: 255263.
  • 32
    Gehring U, Douwes J, Doekes G, Koch A, Bischof W, Fahlbusch B et al. β(1[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]3)-Glucan in house dust of German homes: housing characteristics, occupant behavior, and relations with endotoxins, allergens, and molds. Environ Health Perspect 2001;109: 139144.
  • 33
    Douwes J, Pearce N. Invited commentary: is indoor mold exposure a risk factor for asthma? Am J Epidemiol 2003;158: 203206.