• 1
    Bousquet J, van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N. Aria Workshop Group World Health Organization. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108: S147334.
  • 2
    Corren J. Allergic rhinitis and asthma: how important is the link? J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99: S781786.
  • 3
    Rowe-Jones JM. The link between the nose and the lung, perennial rhinitis and asthma – is it the same disease? Allergy 1997;52(Suppl. 36):2028.
  • 4
    Simons FE. Allergic rhinobronchitis: the asthma-allergic rhinitis link. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104: 534540.
  • 5
    Durham SR. Mechanisms of mucosal inflammation in the nose and lungs. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28(Suppl. 2):1116.
  • 6
    Togias A. Mechanisms of nose-lung interaction. Allergy 1999;54(Suppl. 57):94105.
  • 7
    Settipane RJ, Hagy GW, Settipane GA. Long-term risk factors for developing asthma and allergic rhinitis: a 23 year follow-up study of college students. Allergy Proc 1994;15: 2125.
  • 8
    Plaschke PP, Janson C, Norrman E, Björnsson E, Ellbjär S, Järvholm B. Onset and remission of allergic rhinitis and asthma and the relationship with atopic sensitization and smoking. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162: 920924.
  • 9
    Simons FE. Is antihistamine (H1-receptor antagonist) therapy useful in clinical asthma? Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29(Suppl. 3):98104.
  • 10
    Corren J, Adinoff AD, Buchmeier AD, Irvin CG. Nasal beclomethasone prevents the seasonal increase in bronchial responsiveness in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90: 250256.
  • 11
    Henriksen JM, Wenzel A. Effect of intranasally administered corticosteroid (budesonide) on nasal obstruction, mouth breathing and asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984;130: 10141018.
  • 12
    Szefler SJ. Pharmacokinetics of intranasal corticosteroids. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108: S2631.
  • 13
    Daley-Yates PT, Baker RC. Systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate administered as nasal drops and aqueous nasal spray formulations. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001;51: 103105.
  • 14
    Sterk PJ, Fabbri LM, Quarnier Ph H, Cockcroft DW, O'Byrne PM, Anderson SD et al. Airway responsiveness. Standardized challenge testing with pharmacological, physical and sensitizing stimuli in adults. Eur Respir J Suppl 1993;16: 5383.
  • 15
    Kips JC, Inman M, O'Connor B, Svensson K, Pauwels RA, O'Byrne PM. A long term study of the anti-inflammatory effect of low dose budesonide plus formoterol versus high dose budesonide in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161: 9961001.
  • 16
    Thio BJ, Slingerland GLM, Fredriks AM, Nagelkerke AF, Scheeren RA, Neijens HJ et al. Influence of intranasal steroids during the grass pollen season on bronchial responsiveness in children and young adults with asthma and hay fever. Thorax 2000;55: 826832.
  • 17
    Aubier M, Levy J, Clerici C, Neukirch F, Herman D. Different effects of nasal and bronchial glucocorticosteroid administration on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with allergic rhinitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;146: 122126.
  • 18
    Watson WT, Becker AB, Simons FE. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with intranasal corticosteroids in patients with mild asthma: effect on lower airway responsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91: 97101.
  • 19
    Foresi A, Pelucchi A, Gherson G, Mastropasqua B, Chiapparino A, Testi R. Once daily intranasal fluticasone propionate (200 micrograms) reduces nasal symptoms, and inflammation but also attenuates the increase in bronchial responsiveness during the pollen season in allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98: 274282.
  • 20
    Welsh PW, Stricker WE, Chu C-P, Naessens JM, Reese ME, Reed CS et al. Efficacy of beclomethasone nasal solution, flunisolide, and cromolyn in relieving symptoms of ragweed allergy. Mayo Clin Proc 1987;62: 125134.
  • 21
    Lipworth BJ, White PS. Allergic inflammation in the unified airway: start with the nose. Thorax 2000;55: 878881.
  • 22
    Passalacqua G, Canonica GW. Impact of rhinitis on airway inflammation: biological and therapeutic implications. Respir Res 2001;2: 320323.
  • 23
    Vinuya RZ. Upper airway disorders and asthma: a syndrome of airway inflammation. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;88(Suppl. 1):815.
  • 24
    Pelucchi A, Chiapparino A, Mastropasqua B, Marazzini L, Hernandez A, Foresi A. Effect of intranasal azelastine and beclomethasone dipropionate on nasal symptoms, nasal cytology, and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine in allergic rhinitis in response to grass pollens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95: 515523.