• 1
    Ishizaka K, Ishizaka T, Hornbrook MM. Physicochemical properties of reaginic antibody. V. Correlation of reaginic activity wth gamma-E-globulin antibody. J Immunol 1966;97: 840853.
  • 2
    Venkitaraman AR, Williams GT, Dariavach P, Neuberger MS. The B-cell antigen receptor of the five immunoglobulin classes. Nature 1991;352: 777781.
  • 3
    Achatz G, Nitschke L, Lamers MC. Effect of transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of IgE on the IgE response. Science 1997;276: 409411.
  • 4
    Kaisho T, Schwenk F, Rajewsky K. The roles of gamma 1 heavy chain membrane expression and cytoplasmic tail in IgG1 responses. Science 1997;276: 412415.
  • 5
    Reth M. Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes. Annu Rev Immunol 1992;10: 97121.
  • 6
    Scharenberg AM, Kinet JP. Early events in mast cell signal transduction. Chem Immunol 1995;61: 7287.
  • 7
    Hagan P, Blumenthal UJ, Dunn D, Simpson AJ, Wilkins HA. Human IgE, IgG4 and resistance to reinfection with Schistosoma haematobium. Nature 1991;349: 243245.
  • 8
    Amiri P, Haak-Frendscho M, Robbins K, Mckerrow JH, Stewart T, Jardieu P. Anti-immunoglobulin E treatment decreases worm burden and egg production in Schistosoma mansoni-infected normal and interferon gamma knockout mice. J Exp Med 1994;180: 4351.
  • 9
    Durham SR, Walker SM, Varga EM, Jacobson MR, O'brien F, Noble W, Till SJ, Hamid QA, Nouri-Aria KT. Long-term clinical efficacy of grass-pollen immunotherapy. N Engl J Med 1999;341: 468475.
  • 10
    Chang TW, Davis FM, Sun NC, Sun CR, Macglashan DW, Jr, Hamilton RG. Monoclonal antibodies specific for human IgE-producing B cells: a potential therapeutic for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Biotechnology (N Y) 1990;8: 122126.
  • 11
    Davis FM, Gossett LA, Chang TW. An epitope on membrane-bound but not secreted IgE: implications in isotype-specific regulation. Biotechnology (N Y) 1991;9: 5356.
  • 12
    Davis FM, Gossett LA, Pinkston KL, Liou RS, Sun LK, Kim YW, Chang NT, Chang TW, Wagner K, Bews J et al. Can anti-IgE be used to treat allergy? Springer Semin Immunopathol 1993;15: 5173.
  • 13
    Chang TW. The pharmacological basis of anti-IgE therapy. Nat Biotechnol 2000;18: 157162.
  • 14
    Heusser C, Jardieu P. Therapeutic potential of anti-IgE antibodies. Curr Opin Immunol 1997;9: 805813.
  • 15
    Hook WA, Zinsser FU, Berenstein EH, Siraganian RP. Monoclonal antibodies defining epitopes on human IgE. Mol Immunol 1991;28: 631639.
  • 16
    Kolbinger F, Saldanha J, Hardman N, Bendig MM. Humanization of a mouse anti-human IgE antibody: a potential therapeutic for IgE-mediated allergies. Protein Eng 1993;6: 971980.
  • 17
    Lichtenstein LM, Bochner BS. The role of basophils in asthma. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1991;629: 4861.
  • 18
    Macglashan DW, Jr, Bochner BS, Adelman DC, Jardieu PM, Togias A, Mckenzie-White J et al. Down-regulation of Fc(epsilon)RI expression on human basophils during in vivo treatment of atopic patients with anti-IgE antibody. J Immunol 1997;158: 14381445.
  • 19
    Macglashan DW, Jr, Bochner BS, Adelman DC, Jardieu PM, Togias A, Lichtenstein LM. Serum IgE level drives basophil and mast cell IgE receptor display. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;113: 4547.
  • 20
    Eray M, Tuomikoski T, Wu H, Nordstrom T, Andersson LC, Knuutila S et al. Cross-linking of surface IgG induces apoptosis in a bcl-2 expressing human follicular lymphoma line of mature B cell phenotype. Int Immunol 1994;6: 18171827.
  • 21
    Warner GL, Scott DW. A polyclonal model for B cell tolerance. I. Fcdependent and Fc-independent induction of nonresponsiveness by pretreatment of normal splenic B cells with anti-Ig. J Immunol 1991;146: 21852191.
  • 22
    Warner GL, Gaur A, Scott DW. A polyclonal model for B-cell tolerance. II. Linkage between signaling of B-cell egress from G0, class II upregulation and unresponsiveness. Cell Immunol 1991;138: 404412.
  • 23
    Nemazee D. Role of B cell antigen receptor in regulation of V(D)J recombination and cell survival. Immunol Res 2000;21: 259263.
  • 24
    Goodnow CC, Cyster JG, Hartley SB, Bell SE, Cooke MP, Healy JI et al. Self-tolerance checkpoints in B lymphocyte development. Adv Immunol 1995;59: 279368.
  • 25
    Goodnow CC, Crosbie J, Adelstein S, Lavoie TB, Smith-Gill SJ, Brink RA et al. Altered immunoglobulin expression and functional silencing of self-reactive B lymphocytes in transgenic mice. Nature 1988;334: 676682.
  • 26
    Nemazee DA, Burki K. Clonal deletion of B lymphocytes in a transgenic mouse bearing anti-MHC class I antibody genes. Nature 1989;337: 562566.
  • 27
    Raff MC, Owen JJ, Cooper MD, Lawton AR, III, Megson M, Gathings WE. Differences in susceptibility of mature and immature mouse B lymphocytes to anti-immunoglobulin-induced immunoglobulin suppression in vitro. Possible implications for B-cell tolerance to self. J Exp Med 1975;142: 10521064.
  • 28
    Nemazee D, Buerki K. Clonal deletion of autoreactive B lymphocytes in bone marrow chimeras. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989;86: 80398043.
  • 29
    Goodnow CC. Transgenic mice and analysis of B-cell tolerance. Annu Rev Immunol 1992;10: 489518.
  • 30
    Goodnow CC. Balancing immunity and tolerance: deleting and tuning lymphocyte repertoires. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93: 22642271.
  • 31
    Goodnow CC, Adelstein S, Basten A. The need for central and peripheral tolerance in the B cell repertoire. Science 1990;248: 13731379.
  • 32
    Geisberger R, Crameri R, Achatz G. Models of signal transduction through the B-cell antigen receptor. Immunology 2003;110: 401410.
  • 33
    Carsetti R, Kohler G, Lamers MC. A role for immunoglobulin D: interference with tolerance induction. Eur J Immunol 1993;23: 168178.
  • 34
    Fulcher DA, Basten A. Reduced life span of anergic self-reactive B cells in a double-transgenic model. J Exp Med 1994;179: 125134.
  • 35
    Rathmell JC, Cooke MP, Ho WY, Grein J, Townsend SE, Davis MM et al. CD95 (Fas)-dependent elimination of self-reactive B cells upon interaction with CD4+ T cells. Nature 1995;376: 181184.
  • 36
    Rathmell JC, Thompson CB. Pathways of apoptosis in lymphocyte development, homeostasis, and disease. Cell 2002;109(Suppl):S97S107.
  • 37
    Chen HY, Liu FT, Hou CM, Huang JS, Sharma BB, Chang TW. Monoclonal antibodies against the C(epsilon)mX domain of human membrane-bound IgE and their potential use for targeting IgE-expressing B cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128: 315324.
  • 38
    White P, Smith H, Baker N, Davis W, Frew A. Symptom control in patients with hay fever in UK general practice: how well are we doing and is there a need for allergen immunotherapy? Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28: 266270.
  • 39
    Leung DY, Sampson HA, Yunginger JW, Burks AW, Jr, Schneider LC, Wortel CH et al. Effect of anti-IgE therapy in patients with peanut allergy. N Engl J Med 2003;348: 986993.
  • 40
    Louis R. Anti-IgE: a significant breakthrough in the treatment of airway allergic diseases. Allergy 2004;59: 698700.
  • 41
    Milgrom H, Fick RB, Jr, Su JQ, Reimann JD, Bush RK, Watrous ML et al. Treatment of allergic asthma with monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. rhuMAb-E25 Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999;341: 19661973.
  • 42
    Busse W, Corren J, Lanier BQ, Mcalary M, Fowler-Taylor A, Cioppa GD et al. Omalizumab, anti-IgE recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of severe allergic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108: 184190.
  • 43
    Vignola AM, Humbert M, Bousquet J, Boulet LP, Hedgecock S, Blogg M et al. Efficacy and tolerability of anti-immunoglobulin E therapy with omalizumab in patients with concomitant allergic asthma and persistent allergic rhinitis: SOLAR. Allergy 2004;59: 709717.
  • 44
    Kim YK, Oh SY, Oh HB, Chun SY, Cho SH, Koh YY et al. Coding single nucleotide polymorphism in the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor b chain (FcepsilonRI-beta) gene is associated with immunoglobulin E receptor-mediated histamine release from basophils. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32: 751755.
  • 45
    Barnes PJ. Cytokine-directed therapies for asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108: S72S76.
  • 46
    Borish LC, Nelson HS, Corren J, Bensch G, Busse WW, Whitmore JB et al. Efficacy of soluble IL-4 receptor for the treatment of adults with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107: 963970.
  • 47
    Herz U, Gerhold K, Gruber C, Braun A, Wahn U, Renz H et al. BCG infection suppresses allergic sensitization and development of increased airway reactivity in an animal model. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102: 867874.
  • 48
    Bjorksten B, Naaber P, Sepp E, Mikelsaar M. The intestinal microflora in allergic Estonian and Swedish 2-year-old children. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29: 342346.
  • 49
    Ormstad H, Groeng EC, Duffort O, Lovik M. The effect of endotoxin on the production of IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies against the cat allergen Fel d 1 in mice. Toxicology 2003;188: 309318.
  • 50
    Kim TS, Dekruyff RH, Rupper R, Maecker HT, Levy S, Umetsu DT. An ovalbumin-IL-12 fusion protein is more effective than ovalbumin plus free recombinant IL-12 in inducing a T helper cell type 1-dominated immune response and inhibiting antigen-specific IgE production. J Immunol 1997;158: 41374144.
  • 51
    Lee YL, Fu CL, Ye YL, Chiang BL. Administration of interleukin-12 prevents mite Der p 1 allergen-IgE antibody production and airway eosinophil infiltration in an animal model of airway inflammation. Scand J Immunol 1999;49: 229236.
  • 52
    Rathmell JC, Townsend SE, Xu JC, Flavell RA, Goodnow CC. Expansion or elimination of B cells in vivo: dual roles for CD40- and Fas (CD95)-ligands modulated by the B cell antigen receptor. Cell 1996;87: 319329.