Although as pretreatment oral tolerance is a potent means to achieve systemic suppression, its application in ongoing disease is controversial. Here we propose that availability of naive T cells may critically determine whether immunological tolerance is achieved during ongoing antigenic reactivity. Infusion of naive antigen-specific T cells into mice directly prior to eliciting a secondary Th2 response induces these naive cells to actively engage in the antigenic response despite presence of established memory. Naive antigen-specific T-cells divided faster, produced more interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-5 and enhanced immunoglobulin E (IgE) release during a secondary Th2 response, compared with naive T cells that were infused prior to a primary response. Despite such contribution by new cohorts of naive T cells co-infusion of mucosal Tr together with naive T cells could suppress enhanced IgE release during a secondary Th2 response. We conclude that naive T cells contribute to a secondary Th2 response and although they can still be suppressed in the presence of sufficient numbers of mucosal Tr, they may interfere with potential therapeutic application of mucosal tolerance.