• 1
    Faria AM, Weiner HL. Oral tolerance: mechanisms and therapeutic applications. Adv Immunol 1999;73: 153264.
  • 2
    Mayer L, Shao L. Therapeutic potential of oral tolerance. Nat Rev Immunol 2004;4: 407419.
  • 3
    Husby S, Mestecky J, Moldoveanu Z, Holland S, Elson CO. Oral tolerance in humans. T cell but not B cell tolerance after antigen feeding. J Immunol 1994;152: 46634670.
  • 4
    Kraus TA, Toy L, Chan L, Childs J, Mayer L. Failure to induce oral tolerance to a soluble protein in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2004;126: 17711778.
  • 5
    Patriarca G, Nucera E, Roncallo C, Pollastrini E, Bartolozzi F, De Pasquale T et al. Oral desensitizing treatment in food allergy: clinical and immunological results. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17: 459465.
  • 6
    Ngan J, Kind LS. Suppressor T cells for IgE and IgG in Peyer's patches of mice made tolerant by the oral administration of ovalbumin. J Immunol 1978;120: 861865.
  • 7
    Hauet-Broere F, Unger WW, Garssen J, Hoijer MA, Kraal G, Samsom JN. Functional CD25- and CD25+ mucosal regulatory T cells are induced in gut-draining lymphoid tissue within 48 h after oral antigen application. Eur J Immunol 2003;33: 28012810.
  • 8
    Karlsson MR, Rugtveit J, Brandtzaeg P. Allergen-responsive CD4+ CD25+ Regulatory T Cells in Children who Have Outgrown Cow's Milk Allergy. J Exp Med 2004;199: 16791688.
  • 9
    van Halteren AG, van der Cammen MJ, Biewenga J, Savelkoul HF, Kraal G. IgE and mast cell response on intestinal allergen exposure: a murine model to study the onset of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99: 9499.
  • 10
    Badovinac VP, Messingham KA, Hamilton SE, Harty JT. Regulation of CD8+ T cells undergoing primary and secondary responses to infection in the same host. J Immunol 2003;170: 49334942.
  • 11
    Akbar AN, Salmon M, Janossy G. The synergy between naive and memory T cells during activation. Immunol Today 1991;12: 184188.
  • 12
    Kearney ER, Pape KA, Loh DY, Jenkins MK. Visualization of peptide-specific T cell immunity and peripheral tolerance induction in vivo. Immunity 1994;1: 327339.
  • 13
    Unger WW, Hauet-Broere F, Jansen W, van Berkel LA, Kraal G, Samsom JN. Early events in peripheral regulatory T cell induction via the nasal mucosa. J Immunol 2003;171: 45924603.
  • 14
    Lambrecht BN, Pauwels RA, Fazekas De St Groth B. Induction of rapid T cell activation, division, and recirculation by intratracheal injection of dendritic cells in a TCR transgenic model. J Immunol 2000;164: 29372946.
  • 15
    Deenick EK, Gett AV, Hodgkin PD. Stochastic model of T cell proliferation: a calculus revealing IL-2 regulation of precursor frequencies, cell cycle time, and survival. J Immunol 2003;170: 49634972.
  • 16
    Banyer JL, Halliday DC, Thomson SA, Hamilton NH. Combinations of IFN-gamma and IL-4 induce distinct profiles of dendritic cell-associated immunoregulatory properties. Genes Immun 2003;4: 427440.
  • 17
    Unger WW, Jansen W, Wolvers DA, van Halteren AG, Kraal G, Samsom JN. Nasal tolerance induces antigen-specific CD4+ CD25− regulatory T cells that can transfer their regulatory capacity to naive CD4+ T cells. Int Immunol 2003;15: 731739.
  • 18
    Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Dynamics of T lymphocyte responses: intermediates, effectors, and memory cells. Science 2000;290: 9297.
  • 19
    Hug A, Korporal M, Schroder I, Haas J, Glatz K, Storch-Hagenlocher B et al. Thymic export function and T cell homeostasis in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. J Immunol 2003;171: 432437.
  • 20
    Wagner UG, Koetz K, Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ. Perturbation of the T cell repertoire in rheumatoid arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998;95: 1444714452.
  • 21
    Berzins SP, Uldrich AP, Sutherland JS, Gill J, Miller JF, Godfrey DI et al. Thymic regeneration: teaching an old immune system new tricks. Trends Mol Med 2002;8: 469476.
  • 22
    Barrat FJ, Cua DJ, Boonstra A, Richards DF, Crain C, Savelkoul HF et al. In vitro generation of interleukin 10-producing regulatory CD4(+) T cells is induced by immunosuppressive drugs and inhibited by T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-inducing cytokines. J Exp Med 2002;195: 603616.
  • 23
    Chen Y, Inobe J, Weiner HL. Inductive events in oral tolerance in the TCR transgenic adoptive transfer model. Cell Immunol 1997;178: 6268.
  • 24
    Jonuleit H, Schmitt E, Kakirman H, Stassen M, Knop J, Enk AH. Infectious tolerance: human CD25(+) regulatory T cells convey suppressor activity to conventional CD4(+) T helper cells. J Exp Med 2002;196: 255260.
  • 25
    Mason D, Powrie F. Control of immune pathology by regulatory T cells. Curr Opin Immunol 1998;10: 649655.
  • 26
    Akdis CA, Blaser K, Akdis M. Genes of tolerance. Allergy 2004;59: 897913.