• 1
    Kussebi F, Karamloo F, Akdis M, Blaser K, Akdis CA. Advances in immunological treatment of allergy. Curr Med Chem 2003;2:297308.
  • 2
    Bousquet J, Lockey R, Malling HJ, Alvarez-Cuesta E, Canonica GW, Chapman MD et al. Allergen immunotherapy: therapeutic vaccines for allergic diseases. World Health Organization. American academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998;81:401405.
  • 3
    Durham SR, Walker SM, Varga EM, Jacobson MR, O'Brien F, Noble W et al. Long-term clinical efficacy of grass-pollen immunotherapy. N Engl J Med 1999;341:468475.
  • 4
    Bonifazi F, Jutel M, Bilo BM, Birnbaum J, Muller U. Prevention and treatment of hymenoptera venom allergy: guidelines for clinical practice. Allergy 2005;60:14591470.
  • 5
    Walker SM, Pajno GB, Lima MT, Wilson DR, Durham SR. Grass pollen immunotherapy for seasonal rhinitis and asthma: a randomized, controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:8793.
  • 6
    Pajno GB, Barberio G, De Luca F, Morabito L, Parmiani S. Prevention of new sensitizations in asthmatic children monosensitized to house dust mite by specific immunotherapy. A six-year follow-up study. Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31:13921397.
  • 7
    Eng PA, Reinhold M, Gnehm HP. Long-term efficacy of preseasonal grass pollen immunotherapy in children. Allergy 2002;57:306312.
  • 8
    Moller C, Dreborg S, Ferdousi HA, Halken S, Host A, Jacobsen L et al. Pollen immunotherapy reduces the development of asthma in children with seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis (the PAT-study). J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:251256.
  • 9
    Noon L. Prophylactic inoculation against hay fever. Lancet 1911;1:15721573.
  • 10
    Cooke R, Banard JH, Hebald S, Stull A. Serological evidence of immunity with coexisting sensitization in a type of human allergy (hay fever). J Exp Med 1935;62:733751.
  • 11
    Lichtenstein L, Norman PS, Winkenwerder WL, Osler AG. In vitro studies of human ragweed allergy: changes in cellular and humoral activity associated with specific desensitization. J Clin Invest 1966;45:11261136.
  • 12
    Akdis CA, Akdis M, Blesken T, Wymann D, Alkan SS, Muller U et al. Epitope-specific T cell tolerance to phospholipase A2 in bee venom immunotherapy and recovery by IL-2 and IL-15 in vitro. J Clin Invest 1996;98:16761683.
  • 13
    Akdis CA, Blaser K. IL-10 induced energy in peripheral T cell and reactivation by microenvironmental cytokines: two key steps in specific immunotherapy. Faseb J 1999;13:603609.
  • 14
    Akdis CA, Blesken T, Akdis M, Wuthrich B, Blaser K. Role of interleukin 10 in specific immunotherapy. J Clin Invest 1998;102:98106.
  • 15
    Müller UR, Akdis CA, Fricker M, Akdis M, Bettens F et al. Successful immunotherapy with T cell epitope peptides of bee venom phospholipase A2 induces specific T cell anergy in bee sting allergic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:747754.
  • 16
    Bellinghausen I, Metz G, Enk AH, Christmann S, Knop J, Saloga J. Insect venom immunotherapy induces interleukin-10 production and a Th2-to-Th1 shift, and changes surface marker expression in venom-allergic subjects. Eur J Immunol 1997;27:11311139.
  • 17
    Marcotte GV, Braun CM, Norman PS, Nicodemus CF, Kagey-Sabotka A, Lichtenstein LM et al. Effects of peptide therapy on ex vivo T cell responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:506513.
  • 18
    Jutel M, Akdis M, Budak F, Aebischer-Casaulta C, Wrzyszcz M, Blaser K et al. IL-10 and TGF-β cooperate in regulatory T cell response to mucosal allergens in normal immunity and specific immunotherapy. Eur J Immunol 2003;33:12051214.
  • 19
    Jutel M, Pichler WJ, Skrbic D, Urwyler A, Dahinden C, Müller UR. Bee venom immunotherapy results in decrease of IL-4 and IL-5 and increase of IFN-g secretion in specific allergen stimulated T cell cultures. J Immunol 1995;154:41784194.
  • 20
    Chen Y, Kuchroo VK, Inobe J, Hafler DA, Weiner HL. Regulatory T cell clones induced by oral tolerance: suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Science 1994;265:12371240.
  • 21
    Powrie F, Correa-Oliveira R, Mauze S, Coffman RL. Regulatory interactions between CD45RBhigh and CD45RBlow CD4+ T cells are important for the balance between protective and pathogenic cell-mediated immunity. J Exp Med 1994;179:589600.
  • 22
    Groux H, O'Garra A, Bigler M, Rouleau M, Antonenko S, De Vries JE et al. A CD4+ T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. Nature 1997;389:737742.
  • 23
    Akdis M, Blaser K, Akdis CA. T regulatory cells in allergy: novel concepts in the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;116:961968; quiz 969.
  • 24
    Taams LS, Smith J, Rustin MH, Salmon M, Poulter LW, Akbar AN. Human anergic/suppressive CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells: a highly differentiated and apoptosis-prone population. Eur J Immunol 2001;31:11221131.
  • 25
    Jonuleit H, Schmitt E, Schuler G, Knop J, Enk AH. Induction of interleukin 10-producing, nonproliferating CD4(+) T cells with regulatory properties by repetitive stimulation with allogeneic immature human dendritic cells. J Exp Med 2000;192:12131222.
  • 26
    Akdis CA, Blaser K, Akdis M. Genes of tolerance. Allergy 2004;59:897913.
  • 27
    Akdis M, Verhagen J, Taylor A, Karamloo F, Karagiannidis C, Crameri R et al. Immune responses in healthy and allergic individuals are characterized by a fine balance between allergen-specific T regulatory 1 and T helper 2 cells. J Exp Med 2004;199:15671575.
  • 28
    Jutel M, Watanabe T, Klunker S, Akdis M, Thomet OAR, Malolepszy J et al. Histamine regulates T-cell and antibody responses by differential expression of H1 and H2 receptors. Nature 2001;413:420425.
  • 29
    Jutel M, Watanabe T, Akdis M, Blaser K, Akdis CA. Immune regulation by histamine. Curr Opin Immunol 2002;14:735740.
  • 30
    Akdis CA, Blaser K. Histamine in the immmune regulation of allergic inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:1522.
  • 31
    Bousquet J. Sublingual immunotherapy: from proven prevention to putative rapid relief of allergic symptoms. Allergy 2005;60:13.
  • 32
    Akdis CA, Akdis M, Trautmann A, Blaser K. Immune regulation in atopic dermatitis. Curr Opin Immunol 2000;12:641646.
  • 33
    Akdis CA, Blaser K, Akdis M. Apoptosis in tissue inflammation and allergic disease. Curr Opin Immunol 2004;16:717723.
  • 34
    Akdis M, Trautmann A, Klunker S, Daigle I, Kücüksezer UC, Deglmann W et al. T helper (Th) 2 predominance in atopic disease is due to preferential apoptosis of circulating memory/effector Th1 cells. Faseb J 2003;17:10261035.
  • 35
    Akdis M, Simon H-U, Weigl L, Kreyden O, Blaser K, Akdis CA. Skin homing (cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen-positive) CD8+ T cells respond to superantigen and contribute to eosinophilia and IgE production in atopic dermatitis. J Immunol 1999;163:466475.
  • 36
    Simon H-U, Blaser K. Inhibition of programmed eosinophil death: a key pathogenic event for eosinophilia. ImmunolToday 1995;16:5355.
  • 37
    Whittaker L, Niu N, Temann UA, Stoddard A, Flavell RA, Ray A et al. Interleukin-13 mediates a fundamental pathway for airway epithelial mucus induced by CD4 T cells and interleukin-9. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002;27:593602.
  • 38
    Romagnani S. Lymphokine production by human T cells in disease states. AnnuRevImmunol 1994;12:227257.
  • 39
    Mosmann TR, Sad S. The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more. ImmunolToday 1996;17:142146.
  • 40
    Rincon M, Anguita J, Nakamura T, Fikrig E, Flavell RA. Interleukin (IL)-6 directs the differentiation of IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med 1997;185:461469.
  • 41
    Corry DB. IL-13 in allergy: home at last. Curr Opin Immunol 1999;11:610614.
  • 42
    Trautmann A, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Krüger K, Crameri R, Akdis M, Akkaya A et al. T cells and eosinophils cooperate in the induction of bronchial epithelial apoptosis in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:329337.
  • 43
    Trautmann A, Akdis M, Brocker EB, Blaser K, Akdis CA. New insights into the role of T cells in atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Trends Immunol 2001;22:530532.
  • 44
    Yssel H, Groux H. Characterization of T cell subpopulations involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;121:1018.
  • 45
    Trautmann A, Akdis M, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Disch R, Brocker EB, Blaser K et al. Targeting keratinocyte apoptosis in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:839846.
  • 46
    El Biaze M, Boniface S, Koscher V, Mamessier E, Dupuy P, Milhe F et al. T cell activation, from atopy to asthma: more a paradox than a paradigm. Allergy 2003;58:844853.
  • 47
    Trautmann A, Akdis M, Kleeman D, Altznauer F, Simon H-U, Graeve T et al. T cell-mediated Fas-induced keratinocyte apoptosis plays a key pathogenetic role in eczematous dermatitis. J Clin Invest 2000;106:2535.
  • 48
    Durham SR, Till SJ. Immunological changes associated with allergen immunoherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:157164.
  • 49
    Francis JN, Till SJ, Durham SR. Induction of IL-10+CD4+CD25+ T cells by grass pollen immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:12551261.
  • 50
    Oral HB, Kotenko SV, Yilmaz M, Mani O, Zumkehr J, Blaser K et al. Regulation of T cells and cytokines by the interleukin-10 (IL-10)-family cytokines IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24 andIL-26. Eur J Immunol 2006;36:380388.
  • 51
    Shevach EM. CD4+CD25+ suppressor T cells: more questions than answers. Nat Rev Immunol 2002;2:389400.
  • 52
    Wood KJ, Sakaguchi S. Regulatory T cells in transplantation tolerance. Nat Rev Immunol 2003;3:199210.
  • 53
    Read S, Powrie F. CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Curr Opin Immunol 2001;13:644649.
  • 54
    Barrat FJ, Cua DJ, Boonstra A, Richards DF, Crain C, Savelkoul HF et al. (Th1)- and Th2-inducing cytokines. J Exp Med 2002;195:603616.
  • 55
    Weiner HL. Oral tolerance for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Annu Rev Med 1997;48:341351.
  • 56
    Ke Y, Kapp JA. Oral antigen inhibits priming of CD8+ CTL, CD4+ T cells, and antibody responses while activating CD8+ suppressor T cells. J Immunol 1996;156:916921.
  • 57
    Weiner HL. Induction and mechanism of action of transforming growth factor-beta-secreting Th3 regulatory cells. Immunol Rev 2001;182:207214.
  • 58
    Strober S, Cheng L, Zeng D, Palathumpat R, Dejbakhsh-Jones S, Huie P et al. Double negative (CD4CD8 alpha beta+) T cells which promote tolerance induction and regulate autoimmunity. Immunol Rev 1996;149:217230.
  • 59
    Varney VA, Hamid QA, Gaga M, Ying S, Jacobson M, Frew AJ et al. Influence of grass pollen immunotherapy on cellular infiltration and cytokine mRNA expression during allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous responses. J Clin Invest 1993;92:644651.
  • 60
    Borish L, Aarons A, Rumbyrt J, Cvietusa P, Negri J, Wenzel S. Interleukin-10 regulation in normal subjects and patients with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:12881296.
  • 61
    Koning H, Neijens HJ, Baert MR, Oranje AP, Savelkoul HF. T cells subsets and cytokines in allergic and non-allergic children. II. Analysis and IL-5 and IL-10 mRNA expression and protein production. Cytokine 1997;9:427436.
  • 62
    Vignola AM, Chanez P, Chiappara G, Merendino A, Pace E, Rizzo A et al. Transforming growth factor-beta expression in mucosal biopsies in asthma and chronic bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156:591599.
  • 63
    Hellings PW, Vandenberghe P, Kasran A, Coorevits L, Overbergh L, Mathieu C et al. Blockade of CTLA-4 enhances allergic sensitization and eosinophilic airway inflammation in genetically predisposed mice. Eur J Immunol 2002;32:585594.
  • 64
    Varga EM, Wachholz P, Nouri-Aria KT, Verhoef A, Corrigan CJ, Till SJ et al. T cells from human allergen-induced late asthmatic responses express IL-12 receptor beta 2 subunit mRNA and respond to IL-12 in vitro. J Immunol 2000;165:28772885.
  • 65
    Hamid QA, Schotman E, Jacobson MR, Walker SM, Durham SR. Increases in IL-12 messenger RNA+ cells accompany inhibition of allergen-induced late skin responses after successful grass pollen immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:254260.
  • 66
    Durham SR, Ying S, Varney VA, Jacobson MR, Sudderick RM, Mackay IS et al. Grass pollen immunotherapy inhibits allergen-induced infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes and eosinophils in the nasal mucosa and increases the number of cells expressing messenger RNA for interferon-gamma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:13561365.
  • 67
    Wachholz PA, Nouri-Aria KT, Wilson DR, Walker SM, Verhoef A, Till SJ et al. Grass pollen immunotherapy for hayfever is associated with increases in local nasal but not peripheral Th1:Th2 cytokine ratios. Immunology 2002;105:5662.
  • 68
    Sakaguchi S, Sakaguchi N, Asano M, Itoh M, Toda M. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of self-tolerance causes various autoimmune diseases. J Immunol 1995;155:11511164.
  • 69
    Levings MK, Sangregorio R, Galbiati F, Squadrone S, De Waal Malefyt R, Roncarolo MG. IFN-alpha and IL-10 induce the differentiation of human type 1 T regulatory cells. J Immunol 2001;166:55305539.
  • 70
    Nasser SM, Ying S, Meng O, Kay AB, Ewan PW. Interleukin-10 levels increase in cutaneous biopsies of patients undergoing wasp venom immunotherapy. Eur J Immunol 2001;31:37043713.
  • 71
    Seo N, Tokura Y, Takigawa M, Egawa K. Depletion of IL-10- and TGF-beta-producing regulatory gamma delta T cells by administering a daunomycin-conjugated specific monoclonal antibody in early tumor lesions augments the activity of CTLs and NK cells. J Immunol 1999;163:242249.
  • 72
    Mauri C, Gray D, Mushtaq N, Londei M. Prevention of athritis ny interleukin 10-producing B cells. J Exp Med 2003;197:489501.
  • 73
    Steinbrink K, Wolfl M, Jonuleit H, Knop J, Enk A. Induction of tolerance by IL-10-treated dendritic cells. J Immunol 1997;159:47724780.
  • 74
    Carter L, Fouser LA, Jussif J, Fitz L, Deng B, Wood CR et al. PD-1:PD-L inhibitory pathway affects both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and is overcome by IL-2. Eur J Immunol 2002;32:634643.
  • 75
    McHugh RS, Whitters MJ, Piccirillo CA, Young DA, Shevach EM, Collins M et al. CD4(+)CD25(+) immunoregulatory T cells: gene expression analysis reveals a functional role for the glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor. Immunity 2002;16:311323.
  • 76
    Shimizu J, Yamazaki S, Takahashi T, Ishida Y, Sakaguchi S. Stimulation of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells through GITR breaks immunological self-tolerance. Nat Immunol 2002;3:135142.
  • 77
    Nocentini G, Giunchi L, Ronchetti S, Krausz LT, Bartoli A, Moraca R et al. A new member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor family inhibits T cell receptor-induced apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:62166221.
  • 78
    Lehmann J, Huehn J, De La Rosa M, Masyzna F, Kretschmer U, Krenn V et al. Expression of the integrin alpha E beta 7 identifies unique subsets of CD25+ as well as CD25- regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:1303113036.
  • 79
    Levings MK, Sangregorio R, Roncarolo MG. Human CD25(+)CD4(+) T regulatory cells suppress naive and memory T cell proliferation and can be expanded in vitro without loss of function. J Exp Med 2001;193:12951302.
  • 80
    Van Ree R, Van Leeuwen WA, Dieges PH, Van Wijk RG, De Jong N, Brewczyski PZ et al. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:6874.
  • 81
    Bousquet J, Braquemond P, Feinberg J, Guerin B, Maasch HJ, Michel FB. Specific IgE response with a standardized allergen or allergoid in grass pollen allergy. Ann Allergy 1986;56:456459.
  • 82
    Gleich GJ, Zimmermann EM, Henderson LL, Yunginger JW. Effect of immunotherapy on immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G antibodies to ragweed antigens: a six-year prospective study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982;70:261271.
  • 83
    Lichtenstein LMIK, Norman PS, Sobotka AK, Hill BM. IgE antibody measurements in ragweed hay fever. Relationship to clinical severity and the results of immunotherapy. J Clin Invest 1973;52:472482.
  • 84
    Bousquet J, Maasch H, Martinot B, Hejjaoui A, Wahl R, Michel FB. Double-blind, placebo-controlled immunotherapy with mixed grass-pollen allergoids. II. Comparison between parameters assessing the efficacy of immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;82:439446.
  • 85
    Flicker S, Valenta R. Renaissance of the blocking antibody concept in type I allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;132:1324.
  • 86
    Wachholz PA, Durham SR. Mechanisms of immunotherapy: IgG revisited. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;4:313318.
  • 87
    Golden DB, Meyers DA, Kagey-Sobotka A, Valentine MD, Lichtenstein LM. Clinical relevance of the venom-specific immunoglobulin G antibody level during immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982;69:489493.
  • 88
    Müller UR, Helbling A, Bischof M. Predictive value of venom-specific IgE, IgG and IgG subclass antibodies in patients on immunotherapy with honey bee venom. Allergy 1989;44:412418.
  • 89
    Nouri-Aria KT, Wachholz PA, Francis JN, Jacobson MR, Walker SM, Wilcock LK et al. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces mucosal and peripheral IL-10 responses and blocking IgG activity. J Immunol 2004;172:32523259.
  • 90
    Jutel M, Jaeger L, Suck R, Meyer H, Fiebig H, Cromwell O. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with recombinant grass pollen allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;116:608613.
  • 91
    Rossi RE, Monasterolo G. Evaluation of recombinant and native timothy pollen (rPhl p 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12 and nPhl p 4)-specific IgG4 antibodies induced by subcutaneous immunotherapy with timothy pollen extract in allergic patients. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2004;135:4453.
  • 92
    Punnonen J, De Waal Malefyt R, Van Vlasselaer P, Gauchat J-F, De Vries JE. IL-10 and viral IL-10 prevent IL-4-indiced IgE synthesis by inhibiting the accessory cell function of monocytes. J Immunol 1993;151:12801289.
  • 93
    Sonoda E, Matsumoto R, Hitoshi Y, Ishii T, Sugimoto M, Araki S et al. Transforming growth factor beta induces IgA production and acts additively with interleukin 5 for IgA production. J Exp Med 1989;170:14151420.
  • 94
    Van Bever HP, Stevens WJ. Suppression of the late asthmatic reaction by hyposensitization in asthmatic children allergic to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus). Clin Exp Allergy 1989;19:399404.
  • 95
    Rak S, Lowhagen O, Venge P. The effect of immunotherapy on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and eosinophil cationic protein in pollen-allergic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;82:470480.
  • 96
    Varney VA, Edwards J, Tabbah K, Brewster H, Mavroleon G, Frew AJ. Clinical efficacy of specific immunotherapy to cat dander: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:860867.
  • 97
    Rak S, Hakanson L, Venge P. Immunotherapy abrogates the generation of eosinophil and neutrophil chemotactic activity during pollen season. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;86:706713.
  • 98
    Hakansson L, Heinrich C, Rak S, Venge P. Priming of eosinophil adhesion in patients with birch pollen allergy during pollen season: effect of immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:551562.
  • 99
    Creticos PS, Franklin Adkinson N Jr, Kagey-Sabotka A, Proud D, Meier HL, Naclerio RM et al. Nasal challenge with ragweed in hay fever patients: effect of immunotherapy. J Clin Invest 1983;76:22472253.
  • 100
    Chen WY, Yu J, Wang JY. Decreased production of endothelin-1 in asthmatic children after immunotherapy. J Asthma 1995;32:2935.
  • 101
    Walker C, Virchow J-C, Bruijnzeel PLB, Blaser K. T cell subsets and their soluble products regulate eosinophilia in allergic and nonallergic asthma. JImmunol 1991;146:18291835.
  • 102
    Schleimer RP, Derse CP, Friedman B, Gillis S, Plaut M, Lichtenstein LM et al. Regulation of human basophil mediator release by cytokines. I. Interaction with anti-inflammatory steroids. J Immunol 1989;143:13101327.
  • 103
    Treter S, Luqman M. Antigen-specific T cell tolerance down-regulates mast cell responses in vivo. Cell Immunol 2000;206:116124.
  • 104
    Shim YK, Kim BS, Cho SH, Min KU, Hong SJ. Allergen-specific conventional immunotherapy decreases immunoglobulin E-mediated basophil histamine releasability. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33:5257.
  • 105
    Marshall JS, Leal-Berumen I, Nielsen L, Glibetic M, Jordana M. Interleukin (IL)-10 Inhibits long-term IL-6 production but not preformed mediator release from rat peritoneal mast cells. J Clin Invest 1996;97:11221128.
  • 106
    Schandane L, Alonso-Vega C, Willems F, Gerard C, Delvaux A, Velu T et al. B7/CD28-dependent IL-5 production by human resting T cells is inhibited by IL-10. J Immunol 1994;152:43684374.
  • 107
    Ohkawara Y, Lim KG, Glibetic M, Nakano K, Dolovich J, Croitoru K et al. CD40 expression by human peripheral blood eosinophils. J Clin Invest 1996;97:17611766.
  • 108
    Wilson DR, Torres LI, Durham SR. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003:CD002893.
  • 109
    Bahceciler NN, Arikan C, Taylor A, Akdis M, Blaser K, Barlan IB et al. Impact of sublingual immunotherapy on specific antibody levels in asthmatic children allergic to house dust mites. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;136:287294.
  • 110
    Ciprandi G, Fenoglio D, Cirillo I, Vizzaccaro A, Ferrera A, Tosca MA et al. Induction of interleukin 10 by sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites: a preliminary report. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005;95:3844.
  • 111
    Rolinck-Werninghaus C, Kopp M, Liebke C, Lange J, Wahn U, Niggemann B. Lack of detectable alterations in immune responses during sublingual immunotherapy in children with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis to grass pollen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;136:134141.
  • 112
    Marcucci F, Sensi LG, Migali E, Coniglio G. Eosinophil cationic protein and specific IgE in serum and nasal mucosa of patients with grass-pollen-allergic rhinitis and asthma. Allergy 2001;56:231236.
  • 113
    Marcucci F, Sensi L, Frati F, Bernardini R, Novembre E, Barbato A et al. Effects on inflammation parameters of a double-blind, placebo controlled one-year course of SLIT in children monosensitized to mites. Allergy 2003;58:657662.
  • 114
    Del Valle J, Gantz I. Novel insights into histamine H2 receptor biology. Am J Physiol 1997;273:G987G996.
  • 115
    Mazzoni A, Young HA, Spitzer JH, Visintin A, Segal DM. Histamine regulates cytokine production in maturing dendritic cells, resulting in altered T cell polarization. J Clin Invest 2001;108:18651873.
  • 116
    Osna N, Elliott K, Khan MM. Regulation of interleukin-10 secretion by histamine in TH2 cells and splenocytes. Int Immunopharmacol 2001;1:8596.
  • 117
    Kunzmann S, Mantel P-Y, Wohlfahrt J, Akdis M, Blaser K, Schmidt-Weber C. Histamine enhances TGF-beta1-mediated suppression of Th2 responses. Faseb J 2003;17:10891095.
  • 118
    Müller U, Hari Y, Berchtold E. Premedication with antihistamines may enhance efficacy of specific-allergen immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:8186.
  • 119
    Jutel M, Zak-Nejmark T, Wrzyyszcz M, Malolepszy J. Histamine receptor expression on peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocytes is influenced by ultrarush bee venom immunotherapy. Allergy 1997;52 (Suppl. 37):88.
  • 120
    Kussebi F, Karamloo F, Rhyner C, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Salagianni M, Mannhart C et al. A major allergen gene-fusion protein for potential usage in allergen-specific immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:323329.
  • 121
    Karamloo F, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Kussebi F, Akdis M, Salagianni M, Von Beust BR et al. Prevention of allergy by a recombinant multi-allergen vaccine with reduced IgE binding and preserved T cell epitopes. Eur J Immunol 2005;35:32683276.
  • 122
    Gafvelin G, Thunberg S, Kronqvist M, Gronlund H, Gronneberg R, Troye-Blomberg M et al. Cytokine and antibody responses in birch-pollen-allergic patients treated with genetically modified derivatives of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;138:5966.
  • 123
    Marcotte GV, Braun CM, Norman PS, Nicodemus CF, Kagey-Sobotka A, Lichtenstein LM et al. Effects of peptide therapy on ex vivo T-cell responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:506513.
  • 124
    Von Garnier C, Astori M, Kettner A, Dufour N, Heusser C, Corradin G et al. Allergen-derived long peptide immunotherapy down-regulates specific IgE response and protects from anaphylaxis. Eur J Immunol 2000;30:16381645.
  • 125
    Haselden BM, Kay AB, Larche M. Immunoglobulin E-independent major histocompatibility complex-restricted T cell peptide epitope-induced late asthmatic reactions. J Exp Med 1999;189:18851894.
  • 126
    Oldfield WL, Larche M, Kay AB. Effect of T-cell peptides derived from Fel d 1 on allergic reactions and cytokine production in patients sensitive to cats: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:4753.
  • 127
    Faith A, Akdis CA, Akdis M, Joss A, Wymann D, Blaser K. An altered peptide ligand specifically inhibits Th2 cytokine synthesis by abrogating TCR signaling. J Immunol 1999;162:18361842.
  • 128
    Janssen EM, Van Oosterhout AJ, Van Rensen AJ, Van Eden W, Nijkamp FP, Wauben MH. Modulation of Th2 responses by peptide analogues in a murine model of allergic asthma: amelioration or deterioration of the disease process depends on the Th1 or Th2 skewing characteristics of the therapeutic peptide. J Immunol 2000;164:580588.
  • 129
    Banerjee B, Kanitpong K, Fink JN, Zussman M, Sussman GL, Kelly KJ et al. Unique and shared IgE epitopes of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 in latex allergy. Mol Immunol 2000;37:789798.
  • 130
    Woodfolk JA, Sung SS, Benjamin DC, Lee JK, Platts-Mills TA. Distinct human T cell repertoires mediate immediate and delayed-type hypersensitivity to the Trichophyton antigen, Tri r 2. J Immunol 2000;165:43794387.
  • 131
    Grabie N, Karin N. Expansion of neonatal tolerance to self in adult life: II. Tolerance preferentially spreads in an intramolecular manner. Int Immunol 1999;11:907913.
  • 132
    Rolland JM, O'Hehir RE. Immunotherapy of allergy: anergy, deletion, and immune deviation. Curr Opin Immunol 1998;10:640645.