• biopsychosocial determinants;
  • food allergy;
  • gender;
  • research gaps;
  • sex

Sex and gender are the major determinants of health and disease in both men and women. The aim of this review paper was to examine differences in gender and sex in relation to the prevalence and effects of food allergy. There are still major gaps in our knowledge about the kinds of processes which shape men's and women's perceptions and experiences of food allergy. The expression and experience of health and illness may be moderated by variables such as biological vulnerability, exposure to health risks, perception of symptoms, evaluation of risk, information processing and role expectations. This review highlights the complex links between biological sex, gender, and health in general and offers a synthesis of how these may interact to produce sex and gender differences in biopsychosocial manifestations of food allergy. Implications for research and public health practice are discussed.