Original article: Two different profiles of peach allergy in the north of Spain

Authors


Prof. (Dr) María L. Sanz
Department of Allergology and Clinical Immunology
University Clinic of Navarra
Apartado 4209
31080 Pamplona
Spain

Abstract

Background:  Peach allergy has two different patterns: central Europe with oral allergy syndrome (OAS) related to a primary sensitization to birch pollen Bet v 1 and profilins and southern Europe with mostly systemic symptoms, in many cases due to sensitization to lipid-transfer proteins.

Methods:  Thirty peach-allergic patients with positive skin and food challenge tests and 29 control subjects were included. Skin prick tests (SPT) with inhalant allergens, commercial peach and apple extracts and native Pru p 3 were performed. In vitro specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E to grass pollen, birch pollen, peach, apple, rBet v 1, rBet v 2 and rPhl p 12 was determined by CAP, and rBet v 1, rMal d 1, rMal d 4, rMal d 3 and rPru p 3 using the ADVIA-Centaur platform. Basophil activation test (BAT) with commercial peach extract, commercial apple extract, nPru p 3, rMal d 3, rMal d 1 and rMal d 4 was also performed.

Results:  Pru p 3 was the major allergen in the patient group from northern Spain. Sensitization to this allergen was found in 100% of the patients with systemic symptoms or contact urticaria. Only 60% of OAS patients were sensitized to Pru p 3, being all of them sensitized to profilins and 60% of them to allergens of the Bet v 1 family. Specific IgE determination and BAT using recombinant allergens (rPru p 3) show specificity and sensitivity values close to 100%.

Conclusions:  Most peach-allergic patients coming from the north of Spain present systemic symptoms after ingestion of peach, Pru p 3 being the main allergen. Patients with OAS present profilin-Bet v 1-related sensitization. Thus, in the north of Spain our patients show a mixed central-south Europe pattern with LTP-profilin-Bet v 1 sensitization depending on the symptoms presented. The use of natural and recombinant plant allergens, allows establishing the sensitization patterns to the different allergens studied.

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