• 1
    Togias A. Systematic effects of local allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:S8S14.
  • 2
    Borish L. Allergic rhinitis: systemic inflammation and implications for management. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:10211031.
  • 3
    Bonini S, Denburg J. The role of shock organs in influencing the clinical expression of allergy. Allergy 1999;54:36.
  • 4
    Corren J, Adinoff AD, Irvin CG. Changes in bronchial responsiveness following nasal provocation with allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;89:611618.
  • 5
    Ruffilli A, Bonini S. Susceptibility genes of allergy and asthma. Allergy 1007;52:256273.
  • 6
    Johnston SL, Pattemore PK, Sanderston G, Smith S, Lampe F, Josephs L et al. Community study of viral infections in exacerbation of asthma in 9-11 years old children. Br Med J 1995;310:12531259.
  • 7
    Prieto JL, Gutierrez V, Berto JM, Camps B. Sensitivity and maximal response to methacholine in perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:6167.
  • 8
    Ramsdell JW, Nachtwey FJ, Moser KM. Bronchial hyperreactivity in chronic obstructive bronchitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982;126:829832.
  • 9
    Joos GF, O’Connor BJ. On behalf of the ERS Task Force. Indirect airways challenge. Eur Respir J 2003;21:10501068.
  • 10
    Scott GC, Braun SR. A survey of the current use and methods of analysis of bronchoprovocational challenges. Chest 1991;100:322328.
  • 11
    Bloom JW, Yamamura HI, Baumgartener C, Halon M. A muscarinic receptor with high affinity for pirenzepine mediates vagally-induced bronchoconstriction. Eur J Pharmacol 1987;133:2127.
  • 12
    O’Connor G, Sparrow D, Taylor D, Segal M, Weiss S. Analysis of dose-response curves to methacholine. An approach suitable for population studies. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;136:14121417.
  • 13
    Dixon M, Jackson DM, Richards IM. The effects of histamine, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine on lung mechanics and irritant receptors in the dog. J Physiol 1979;287:393403.
  • 14
    Juniper EF, Frith PA, Dunnett C, Cockcroft DW, Hargreave FE. Reproducibility and comparison of responses to inhaled histamine and methacholine. Thorax 1978;33:705710.
  • 15
    Asher MI, Keil U, Anderson HR, Beasley R, Crane J, Martinez F et al. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC): rationale and methods. Eur Respir J 1995;8:483491.
  • 16
    Haby MM, Anderson SD, Peat JK, Mellis CM, Toelle BG, Woolcock AJ. An exercise challenge protocol for epidemiological studies of asthma in children: comparison with histamine challenge. Eur Respir J 1994;7:4349.
  • 17
    Sterk PJ, Fabbri LM, Quanjer PH, Cockcroft DW, O’Byrne PM, Anderson SD et al. Airway responsiveness: standardized challenge testing with pharmacological, physical and sensitizing stimuli in adults. Statement of the European Respiratory Society. Eur Respir J 1993;6:5383.
  • 18
    American Thoracic Society. Guidelines for methacholine and exercise challenge testing – 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:309329.
  • 19
    Fourie PR, Joubert JR. Determination of airway hyper-reactivity in asthmatic children: a comparison among exercise, nebulized water, and histamine challenge. Pediatr Pulmonol 1988;4:27.
  • 20
    Lin CC, Wu JL, Huang WC, Lin CY. A bronchial response comparison of exercise and methacholine in asthmatic subjects. J Asthma 1991;28:3140.
  • 21
    West JV, Robertson CF, Roberts R, Olinsky A. Evaluation of bronchial responsiveness to exercise in children as an objective measure of asthma in epidemiological surveys. Thorax 1996;51:590595.
  • 22
    Strauss RH, McFadden ER, Ingram RH, Deal EC, Jaeger JJ. Influence of heat and humidity on the airway obstruction induced by exercise in asthma. J Clin Invest 1978;61:433440.
  • 23
    Phillips YY, Jaeger JJ, Laube BL, Rosenthal RR. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation of compressed gas mixture. A simple system for bronchial challenge by respiratory heat loss. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985;131:3135.
  • 24
    Kivity S, Greif J, Reisner B, Fireman E, Topilsky M. Bronchial inhalation challenge with ultrasonically nebulized saline; comparison to exercise-induced asthma. Ann Allergy 1986;57:355358.
  • 25
    Belcher NG, Lee TH, Rees PJ. Airway responses to hypertonic saline, exercise and histamine challenges in bronchial asthma. Eur Respir J 1989;2:4448.
  • 26
    Anderson SD, Brannan J, Spring J, Spalding N, Rodwell LT, Chan K et al. A new method for bronchial-provocation testing in asthmatic subjects using a dry powder of mannitol. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156:758765.
  • 27
    Cushley MJ, Tattersfield AE, Holgate ST. Inhaled adenosine and guanosine on airway resistance in normal and asthmatic subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1983;15:161165.
  • 28
    Polosa R, Ng WH, Crimi N, Vancheri C, Holgate ST, Church MK et al. Release of mast-cell-derived mediators after endobronchial adenosine challenge in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:624629.
  • 29
    Crimi N, Palermo F, Oliveri R, Cacopardo B, Vancheri C, Mistretta A. Adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction: comparison between nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate. Eur J Respir Dis 1986;147:258262.
  • 30
    Polosa R. Adenosine receptors subtype: their relevance to adenosine-mediated responses in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J 2002;20:488496.
  • 31
    De Meer G, Heederik D, Postma DS. Bronchial responsiveness to adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP) and methacholine differ in their relationship with airway allergy and baseline FEV1. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;165:327331.
  • 32
    Avital A, Springer C, Bar-Yishay E, Godfrey S. Adenosine, methacholine, and exercise challenges in children with asthma or paediatric chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1995;50:511516.
  • 33
    Brusasco V, Crimi E, Gianiorio P, Lantero S, Rossi GA. Allergen-induced increase in airway responsiveness and inflammation in mild asthma. J Appl Physiol 1990;69:22092214.
  • 34
    Van Den Berge M, Kerstjens HA, De Reus DM, Koeter GH, Kauffman HF, Postma DS. Provocation with adenosine 5’-monophosphate, but not methacholine, induces sputum eosinophilia. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34:7176.
  • 35
    Crimi E, Spanevello A, Neri M, Ind PW, Rossi GA, Brusasco V. Dissociation between airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:49.
  • 36
    Burney PGJ, Chinn S, Britton JR, Tattersfield AE, Papacosta AO. What symptoms predict the bronchial response to histamine? Evaluation in a community survey of the Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire (1984) of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Int J Epidemiol 1989;18:165173.
  • 37
    Perpina M, Pellicer C, De Diego A, Compte L, Macian V. Diagnostic value of the bronchial provocation test with methacholine in asthma: Bayesian analysis approach. Chest 1993;104:149154.
  • 38
    Pison C, Malo JL, Rouleau JL, Chalaoui J, Ghezzo H, Malo J. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine in subjects with chronic left heart failure at a time of exacerbation and after increasing diuretic therapy. Chest 1989;96:230235.
  • 39
    Bechtel JJ, Starr T 3rd, Dantzker DR, Bower JS. Airway hyperreactivity in patients with sarcoidosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981;124:759761.
  • 40
    Davis PB. Autonomic and airway reactivity in obligate heterozygotes for cystic fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984;129:911914.
  • 41
    Bahous J, Cartier A, Pineau L, Bernard C, Ghezzo H, Martin RR et al. Pulmonary function tests and airway responsiveness to methacholine in chronic bronchiectasis of the adult. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 1984;20:375380.
  • 42
    Koh YY, Kang EK, Min YG, Kim CK. The importance of maximal airway response to methacholine in the prediction of asthma development in patients with allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32:921927.
  • 43
    Dinh Xuan AT, Lockart A. Use of non specific bronchial challenges in the assessment of anti-asthmatic drug. Eur Respir Rev 1991;1:1924.
  • 44
    Kerrebijn KF, Van Essen-Zandvliet EE, Neijens HJ. Effect of long term treatment with inhaled corticosteroid and beta-agonist on the bronchial responsiveness in children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987;79:653659.
  • 45
    Sont JK, Willems LN, Bel EH, Van Krieken JH, Vandenbroucke JP, Sterk PJ. Clinical control and histopathologic outcome of asthma when using airway hyperresponsiveness as an additional guide to long-term treatment. The AMPUL Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:10431051.
  • 46
    Cheung D, Dick EC, Timmers MC, DeKlerk EPA, Spaan WJM, Sterk PJ. Rhinovirus inhalation causes long-lasting excessive airway narrowing in response to methacholine in asthmatic subjects in vivo. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:14901496.
  • 47
    Gilbert R, Auchincloss JH. Post-test probability of asthma following methacholine challenge. Chest 1990;97:562565.
  • 48
    Anderson SD. Exercise-induced asthma: the state of the art. Chest 1975;87:191S197S.
  • 49
    McFadden ER, Ingram RH. Exercise-induced asthma. Observations on the initiating stimulus. N Engl J Med 1979;301:763769.
  • 50
    Finnerty JP, Holgate ST. Evidence for the roles of histamine and prostaglandins as mediators in exercise-induced asthma: the inhibitory effect of terfenadine and flurbiprofen alone and in combination. Eur Respir J 1990;3:540547.
  • 51
    Crimi E, Pellegrino R, Smeraldi A, Brusasco V. Exercise-induced bronchodilation in natural and induced asthma: effects on ventilatory response and performance. J Appl Physiol 2002;92:23532360.
  • 52
    Reiss TF, Hill JB, Harman E, Zhang J, Tanaka WK, Bronsky E et al. Increased urinary excretion of LTE4 after exercise and attenuation of exercise-induced bronchospasms by montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist. Thorax 1997;52:10301035.
  • 53
    Stearns DR, McFadden ER, Breslin FJ, Ingram RH. Reanalysis of the refractory period in exertional asthma. J Appl Physiol Environ Exercise Physiol 1981;50:503508.
  • 54
    Wilson BA, Bar-Or O, O’Byrne PM. The effects of indomethacin on refractoriness following exercise both with and without a bronchoconstrictor response. Eur Respir J 1994;7:21742178.
  • 55
    ERS Task Force on Standardization of Clinical Exercise Testing. Clinical exercise testing with reference to lung diseases: indications, standardization and interpretation strategies. Eur Respir J 1997;10:26622689.
  • 56
    Jones NL. Clinical exercise testing, 4th edn. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1997.
  • 57
    Crimi E, Balbo A, Milanese M, Miadonna A, Rossi GA, Brusasco V. Airway inflammation and occurrence of delayed bronchoconstriction in exercise-induced asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;146:507512.
  • 58
    Argyros GJ, Roach JM, Hurwitz KM, Eliasson AH, Phillips YY. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation as a bronchoprovocation technique: development of a standardized dosing schedule in asthmatics. Chest 1996;109:15201524.
  • 59
    Anderson SD, Brusasco V, Haahtela T, Popov T. Criteria for diagnosis of asthma, EIB and AHR for athletes: lessons from Olympic Games. In: CarlsenK-H, DelgadoL, GiaccoSD, editors. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of exercise-related asthma, respiratory and allergic disorders in sports. Eur Respir Monograph 2005;10:4866.
  • 60
    McFadden ER Jr, Nelson JA, Skowronski ME, Lenner KA. Thermally induced asthma and airway drying. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:221226.
  • 61
    Smith CM, Anderson SD. Inhalational challenge using hypertonic saline in asthmatic subjects: a comparison with responses to hyperpnoea, methacholine and water. Eur Respir J 1990;3:144151.
  • 62
    Makker HK, Holgate ST. Relation of the hypertonic saline responsiveness of the airways to exercise induced asthma symptom severity and to histamine or methacholine reactivity. Thorax 1993;48:142147.
  • 63
    Mai XM, Nilsson L, Kjellman NI, Bjorksten B. Hypertonic saline challenge tests in the diagnosis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2002;13:361367.
  • 64
    Brannan JD, Koskela H, Anderson SD, Chew N. Responsiveness to mannitol in asthmatic subjects with exercise- and hyperventilation-induced asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:11201126.
  • 65
    Allegra L, Bianco S. Non-specific broncho-reactivity obtained with an ultrasonic aerosol of distilled water. Eur J Respir Dis 1980;61:4149.
  • 66
    Sheppard D, Rizk NW, Boushey HA, Bethel RA. Mechanism of cough and bronchoconstriction induced by distilled water aerosol. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;127:691694.
  • 67
    Anderson SD. Non-isotonic aerosol challenge in the evaluation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Allergy Proc 1991;12:143149.
  • 68
    Foresi A, Mattoli S, Corbo GM, Polidori G, Ciappi G. Comparison of bronchial responses to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, exercise, and methacholine in asthma. Chest 1986;90:822826.
  • 69
    Fish JE, Ankin MG, Kelly JF, Peterman VI. Regulation of bronchomotor tone by lung inflation in asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects. J Appl Physiol 1981;50:10791086.
  • 70
    Brusasco V, Crimi E, Barisione G, Spanevello A, Rodarte JR, Pellegrino R. Airway responsiveness to methacholine: effects of deep inhalations and airway inflammation. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:567573.
  • 71
    Malmberg P, Larsson K, Sundblad BM, Zhiping W. Importance of the time interval between FEV1 measurements in a methacholine provocation test. Eur Respir J 1993;6:680686.
  • 72
    De Meer G, Marks GB, Postma DS. Direct or indirect stimuli for bronchial challenge testing: what is the relevance for asthma epidemiology. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34:916.
  • 73
    Prieto L, Bruno L, Gutierrez V, Uixera S, Perez-Frances C, Lanuza A et al. Airway responsiveness to adenosine 5’-monophosphate and exhaled nitric oxide measurements: predictive value as markers for reducing the dose of inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic subjects. Chest 2003;124:13251333.
  • 74
    Passàli D. Around the nose, 2nd edn. Firenze: Conti Tipocolor, 1992.
  • 75
    Sartoris A, Beatrice F. Nasal hyperreactivity: etiopathogenesis. In: PassàliD, editor. Around the nose. Ed. Firenze: Conti Tipocolor, 1988.
  • 76
    Passàli D, Bellusi L, Biagini C. Iperreattività nasale. Fisiopatologia del sistema nervoso autonomo cervico-facciale. XI Giornate Italiane di Otoneurologia , Castellammare di Stabbia, 1994.
  • 77
    Passàli D, Anselmi M, Bellusi L, Passàli FM, Passàli GC. Storia delle metodiche utilizzate quali test di provocazione nasale aspecifica (TPNA) alla luce di esperienze personali. Riv Orl Aud Fon 1999;4:121130.
  • 78
    Jankowski R, Philip G, Togias A, Naclerio R. Demonstration of bilateral cholinergic secretory response after unilateral nasal cold dry air challenge. Rhinology 1993;31:97100.
  • 79
    Stewart EJ, Cinnamond MJ, Nicholls P, Stanford CF. The effect of metacholine on nasal transmucosal potential difference in normal human subjects. Rhinology 1993;31:8183.
  • 80
    Gerth van Wijk R, Dieges PH. Nasal reactivity to histamine and methacoline. Two different forms of upper airway responsiveness. Rhinology 1994;32:119122.
  • 81
    Ferrara AD, Passàli D. Non specific nasal stimulation test in rhinitics: a review and personal contribution. Riv Orl Aud Fon 1997;1:115.
  • 82
    Stjarne P, Lundblad L, Lundberg JM, Anggard A. Capsaicine and nicotine-sensitive afferent neurones and nasal secretion in health human volunteers and in patients with vasomotor rhinitis. Br J Pharmacol 1989;96:693701.
  • 83
    Allansmith MR. Immunology of the eye. The eye and Immunology. St Louis: Mosby, 1982.
  • 84
    Ruskell GL. Innervation of the conjunctiva. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1985;104(Pt 4):390395.
  • 85
    Diebold Y, Rios JD, Hodges RR, Rawe I, Dartt DA. Presence of nerves and their receptors in mouse and human conjunctival globet cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001;42:22702282.
  • 86
    Cockcroft DW. Bronchial inhalation tests: I. Measurement of nonallergic bronchial responsiveness. Ann All 1985;55:527534.
  • 87
    Konno A, Terada N, Okamoto Y, Togawa K. The role of chemical mediators and mucosal hyperreactivity in nasal hypersecretion in nasal allergy. Allergy Clin Immunol 1987;620626.
  • 88
    Pauwels R. Relationship between bronchial responsiveness and immunologica hypersensititivy. In: NadelJA, PauwelsR, NashallPD, editors. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, normal and abnormal control, assessment, and therapy. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific ed., 1987:342355.
  • 89
    Anderson SD, Silverman M, Konig P, Godfrey S. Exercise-induced asthma. Br J Dis Chest 1975;69:139.
  • 90
    Magnussen H, Nowak D. Role of hyerresponsiveness and airway inflammation in bronchial asthma. Respiration 1989;55:6574.
  • 91
    Busse WW. Respiratory infections: their role in airway responsiveness and the pathogenesis of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;85:671683.
  • 92
    Cartier A, Thomson NC, Frith PA, Roberts R, Hargreave FE. Allergen-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness to histamine: relationship to the late asthmatic response and changes in airway caliber. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982;70:170177.
  • 93
    Krayenbuhl MC, Hudspith BN, Brostoff J, Scadding GK, Guesdon JL, Latchman Y. Nasal histamine release following hyperosmolar and allergen challenge. Allergy 1989;44:2529.
  • 94
    Durham SR, Craddock CF, Cookson WO, Benson MK. Increases in airway responsiveness to histamine precede allergen-induced late asthmatic responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;82:764770.
  • 95
    Aalbers R, Kaufman HF, Koeter GH, Postma DS, De Vries K, De Monchy JG. Dissimilarity in methacholine and adenosine 5’-monophosphate responsiveness 3 and 24 h after allergen challenge. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988;137:10021008.
  • 96
    Ciprandi G, Buscaglia S, Pesce G, Lotti R, Rolando M, Bagnasco M et al. Effects of conjunctival hyperosmolar challenge in allergic subjects and normal controls. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1994;104:9296.
  • 97
    Ciprandi G, Buscaglia S, Pesce G, Pronzato C, Ricca V, Parmiaui S et al. Minimal persistent inflammation is present at mucosal level in patients with asymptomatic rhinitis and mite allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:971979.
  • 98
    Ciprandi G, Buscaglia S, Pesce GP, Bagnasco M, Canonica GW. Ocular challenge and hyperresponsiveness to histamine in patients with allergic conjunctivitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91:12271230.
  • 99
    Tanaka DT, Ando RE, Larsen GL, Irvin CG. Cholinergic mechanisms involved with histamine hyperreactivity in immune rabbit airways challenged with ragweed antigen. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;144:7075.
  • 100
    Lambiase A, Bonini S, Micera A, Tirassa P, Magrini L, Bonini S et al. Increased plasma levels of substance P in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997;38:21612164.
  • 101
    Bonini S, Lambiase A, Bonini S, Angelucci F, Magrini L, Manni L et al. Circulating nerve growth factor levels are increased in humans with allergic diseases and asthma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:1095510960.
  • 102
    Lambiase A, Bonini S, Bonini S, Micera A, Magrini L, Bracci-Laudiero L et al. Increased plasma levels of nerve growth factor in vernal keratoconjunctivitis and relationship to conjunctival mast cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1995;36:21272132.
  • 103
    O’Byrne PM, Dolovich M, Dirks R, Roberts RS, Newhousa MJ. Lung epithalil permeability: relation to non specific airway responsiveness. J Appl Physiol 1984;57:7784.
  • 104
    Bonini S, Bonini S, Schiavone M, Centofanti M, Allansmith MR, Bucci MG. Conjunctival hyperresponsiveness to ocular histamine challenge in patients with vernal conjunctivitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;89:103107.
  • 105
    Abelson MB, Chambers WA, Smith LM. Conjunctival allergen challenge. A clinical approach to studying allergic conjunctivitis. Arch Ophthalmol 1990;108:8488.
  • 106
    Bonini S, Bonini S, Bucci MG, Berruto A, Adriani E, Balsano F et al. Allergen dose response and late symptoms in a human model of ocular allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;86:869876.
  • 107
    Woodward DF, Spada CS, Hawley SB, Nieves AL. Conjunctival eosinophil infiltration evoked by histamine and immediate hypersensitivity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1986;27:14951503.
  • 108
    Sacchetti M, Lambiase A, Aronni S, Griggi T, Ribatti V, Bonini S et al. Hyperosmolar conjunctival provocation for the evaluation of nonspecific hyperreactivity in healthy patients and patients with allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:872877.
  • 109
    Canonica GW, Ciprandi G. Minimal persistent inflammation may be controlled by cetirizine. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83:445448.
  • 110
    Ciprandi G, Buscaglia S, Pesce GP, Passalacqua G , Rihoux JP, Bagnasco M et al. Cetrizine reduces inflammatory cell recruitment and ICAM-1 (or CD54) expression on conjunctival epithelium in both early- and late-phase reactions after allergen-specific challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1985;95:612621.
  • 111
    Fasce L, Ciprandi G, Pronzato C, Cozzani S, Tosca MA, Grimaldi IGW. Cetrizine reduces ICAM-1 on epithelial cells during nasal minimal persistent inflammation in asymptomatic children with mite-allergic asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996;109:272276.
  • 112
    Ciprandi G, Catrullo A, Tosca M, Cerqueti P, Mondino C, Passalacqua G et al. Azelastine eye drops reduce conjunctival hyperresponsiveness to hyperosmolar glucose challenge in children with asymptomatic mite conjunctivitis. J Invest Allergol Clin Immunol 1999;9:3538.
  • 113
    Tosca M, Ciprandi G, Passalacqua G, Canonica GW. Cetirizine reduces conjunctival nonspecific hyperreactivity in children with mite allergy. J Invest Allergol Clin Immunol 1998;8:2326.