• allergen genetics;
  • IgE specificity;
  • WDEIA;
  • wheat food allergy;
  • ω-gliadins

Background:  Anti-gliadin IgE are expressed in patients with food allergy associated to skin immediate hypersensitivity to hydrolyzed wheat proteins (IHHWP). It is not known if they react with ω5-gliadins, the major allergens in wheat dependant exercise-induced food anaphylaxis (WDEIA), encoded on wheat chromosomes 1B.

Methods:  Unmodified gliadins from 14 wheat varieties expressing most of the 1B ω-gliadin alleles, were immunoprobed after SDS-PAGE and blotting, with four sera from patients with IHHWP, and two with WDEIA. Gliadins reacting with IgE were visualized using chemiluminescence and identified according to their mobility and typical SDS-PAGE pattern. The resulting signal was also measured to compare their IgE reactivity.

Results:  IHHWP and WDEIA sera exhibited distinct patterns of reactivity. IgE of patients with IHHWP reacted mainly with all ω-gliadins alleles and one γ-gliadin encoded respectively on chromosomes 1D and 1B, but not with any ω5-gliadins alleles as for WDEIA. A few other reactive alleles of ω-gliadins were encoded on chromosomes 1A. Unassigned additional bands of the whole gliadin pattern were also reactive. The four patients with IHHWP exhibited almost the same pattern of reactivity. Main differences concerned band reactivity which modulated the overall reactivity of each wheat variety.

Conclusions:  The IgE epitopes involved in IHHWP and WDEIA are different. This suggests that the protein state and the route of exposure to very similar gluten structures, probably orientate the pattern of epitope reactivity and the wheat food allergy manifestations.