• 1
    Holgate ST. The epidemic of allergy and asthma. Nature 1999;402:B2B4.
  • 2
    American Thoracic Society. Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;136:225244.
  • 3
    Busse WW. Inflammation in asthma: the cornerstone of the disease and target of therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:S17S22.
  • 4
    Laitinen LA, Laitinen A, Haahtela T. Airway mucosal inflammation even in patients with newly diagnosed asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:697704.
  • 5
    Sobonya RE. Quantitative structural alterations in long-standing allergic asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984;130:289292.
  • 6
    Boulet LP, Turcotte H, Laviolette M, Naud F, Bernier MC, Martel S et al. Airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and subepithelial collagen deposition in recently diagnosed versus long-standing mild asthma. Influence of inhaled corticosteroids. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:13081313.
  • 7
    Settipane GA. Natural history of adult asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2001;86:699.
  • 8
    Boulay ME, Boulet LP. The relationships between atopy, rhinitis and asthma: pathophysiological considerations. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;3:5155.
  • 9
    Boulet LP, Turcotte H, Laprise C, Lavertu C, Bédard PM, Lavoie A et al. Comparative degree and type of sensitization to common indoor and outdoor allergens in subjects with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:5259.
  • 10
    Bergeron C, Boulet LP. Structural changes in airway diseases: characteristics, mechanisms, consequences, and pharmacologic modulation. Chest 2006;129:10681087.
  • 11
    Bochner BS, Busse WW. Allergy and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:953959.
  • 12
    O’Byrne PM, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. Late asthmatic responses. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;136:740751.
  • 13
    Cockcroft DW, Davis BE, Boulet LP, Deschesnes F, Gauvreau GM, O’Byrne PM et al. The links between allergen skin test sensitivity, airway responsiveness and airway response to allergen. Allergy 2005;60:5659.
  • 14
    Bousquet J, Van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:S147S334.
  • 15
    Demoly P, Bousquet J. The relation between asthma and allergic rhinitis. Lancet 2006;368:711713.
  • 16
    Bousquet J, Vignola AM, Campbell AM, Michel FB. Pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996;110:207218.
  • 17
    Boulay ME, Boulet LP. Influence of natural exposure to pollens and domestic animals on airway responsiveness and inflammation in sensitized non-asthmatic subjects. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128:336343.
  • 18
    Chakir J, Laviolette M, Boutet M, Laliberté R, Dubé J, Boulet LP. Lower airways remodeling in nonasthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis. Lab Invest 1996;75:735744.
  • 19
    Chakir J, Laviolette M, Turcotte H, Boutet M, Boulet LP. Cytokine expression in the lower airways of nonasthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis: influence of natural allergen exposure. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:904910.
  • 20
    Chanez P, Vignola AM, Vic P, Guddo F, Bonsignore G, Godard P et al. Comparison between nasal and bronchial inflammation in asthmatic and control subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:588595.
  • 21
    Sterk PJ, Fabbri LM, Quanjer PH, Cockcroft DW, O’Byrne PM, Anderson SD et al. Airway responsiveness. Standardized challenge testing with pharmacological, physical and sensitizing stimuli in adults. Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests, European Community for Steel and Coal. Official Statement of the European Respiratory Society. Eur Respir J Suppl 1993;16:5383.
  • 22
    Pin I, Freitag AP, O’Byrne PM, Girgis-Gabardo A, Watson RM, Dolovich J et al. Changes in the cellular profile of induced sputum after allergen-induced asthmatic responses. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:12651269.
  • 23
    Blackley CH. Experimental research on the causes and nature of Catarrhus aestivus (Hay fever or Hay asthma). London: Bailliere, Tindall & Cox, 1873.
  • 24
    Stevens FA. A comparison of pulmonary and dermal sensitivity to inhaled substances. J Allergy 1934;5:285287.
  • 25
    Colldahl HA. A study of provocation tests on patients with bronchial asthma: I. The reliability of provocation tests performed under different conditions. Acta Allergol 1952;5:133142.
  • 26
    Colldahl HA. A study of provocation tests on patients with bronchial asthma: II. The outcome of provocation tests with different antigens. Acta Allergol 1952;5:143153.
  • 27
    Schiller IW, Lowell FC. The effect of drugs in modifying the response of asthmatic subjects to inhalation of pollen extracts as determined by vital capacity measurements. Ann Allergy 1947;5:564566.
  • 28
    Lowell FC, Schiller IW. Measurement of changes in vital capacity as a means of detecting pulmonary reactions to inhaled aerosolized allergenic extracts in asthmatic subjects. J Allergy 1948;19:100107.
  • 29
    Herxheimer H. Bronchial obstruction induced by allergens, histamine and acetyl-beta-methylcholinechloride. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1951;2:2739.
  • 30
    Herxheimer H. Induced asthma in man. Lancet 1951;23:13371341.
  • 31
    Feinberg SM, Stier RA, Grater WC. A suggested quantitative evaluation of the degree of sensitivity of patients with ragweed pollinosis. J Allergy 1952;23:387394.
  • 32
    Gandevia B, Hugh-Jones P. Terminology for measurements of ventilatory capacity; a report to the thoracic society. Thorax 1957;12:290293.
  • 33
    Schiller IW, Lowell FC. The inhalation test as a diagnostic procedure with special emphasis on the house dust allergen. J Allergy 1952;23:234241.
  • 34
    Tiffeneau R. Quantitative research on bronchoconstrictor mediators produced by continuous inhalation of allergens. Pathol Biol (Paris) 1959;7:22932310.
  • 35
    Citron KM, Frankland AW, Sinclair JD. Inhalation tests of bronchial hypersensitivity in pollen asthma. Thorax 1958;13:229232.
  • 36
    Herxheimer H. Bronchial hypersensitization and hyposensitization in man. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1951;2:4059.
  • 37
    Herxheimer H. The late bronchial reaction in induced asthma. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1952;3:323328.
  • 38
    Burtin P, Buffe D, Carton J, Dominjon-Monnier F, Kourilsky R. Delayed allergy to house dust. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1962;21:819.
  • 39
    Van LC, Knol K, De VK. House dust provocation in children. Scand J Respir Dis 1969;50:7685.
  • 40
    Booij-Noord H, Orie NG, De VK. Immediate and late bronchial obstructive reactions to inhalation of house dust and protective effects of disodium cromoglycate and prednisolone. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1971;48:344354.
  • 41
    Booij-Noord H, De VK, Sluiter HJ, Orie NG. Late bronchial obstructive reaction to experimental inhalation of house dust extract. Clin Allergy 1972;2:4361.
  • 42
    Orie NGM, Van Lookeren Campagne JG, Knol K, Booij-Noord H, DeVries K. Late reactions in bronchial asthma. In: PepysJ, Yamamura I, eds. Intal in Bronchial Asthma. Tokyo: Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Allergollogy, 1974:1729.
  • 43
    Pepys J, Hargreave FE, Chan M, McCarthy DS. Inhibitory effects of disodium cromoglycate on allergen-inhalation tests. Lancet 1968;2:134137.
  • 44
    Pepys J. Immunological mechanisms in asthma. In: PorterB, Birch J, eds. Identification of Asthma. London: Churchill Livingtone, 1971:8797.
  • 45
    Pepys J, Davies RJ, Breslin AB, Hendrick DJ, Hutchcroft BJ. The effects of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (Becotide) and sodium cromoglycate on asthmatic reactions to provocation tests. Clin Allergy 1974;4:1324.
  • 46
    Pepys J, Hutchcroft BJ. Bronchial provocation tests in etiologic diagnosis and analysis of asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975;112:829859.
  • 47
    Hargreave FE, Ryan G, Thomson NC, O’Byrne PM, Latimer K, Juniper EF et al. Bronchial responsiveness to histamine or methacholine in asthma: measurement and clinical significance. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981;68:347355.
  • 48
    Altounyan RE. Variation of drug action on airway obstruction in man. Thorax 1964;19:406415.
  • 49
    Cockcroft DW, Ruffin RE, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. Allergen-induced increase in non-allergic bronchial reactivity. Clin Allergy 1977;7:503513.
  • 50
    Cartier A, Thomson NC, Frith PA, Roberts R, Hargreave FE. Allergen-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness to histamine: relationship to the late asthmatic response and change in airway caliber. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982;70:170177.
  • 51
    De Monchy JGR, Kauffman HF, Venge P. Bronchoalveolar eosinophilia during allergen-induced late asthmatic reactions. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985;131:373376.
  • 52
    Kharitonov SA, O’Connor BJ, Evans DJ, Barnes PJ. Allergen-induced late asthmatic reactions are associated with elevation of exhaled nitric oxide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:18941899.
  • 53
    Gauvreau GM, Doctor J, Watson RM, Jordana M, O’Byrne PM. Effects of inhaled budesonide on allergen-induced airway responses and airway inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:12671271.
  • 54
    Van Der Veen MJ, Lopuhaa CE, Aalberse RC, Jansen HM, Van Der Zee JS. Bronchial allergen challenge with isolated major allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: the role of patient characteristics in the early asthmatic response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:2431.
  • 55
    Cockcroft DW, Murdock KY, Kirby J, Hargreave F. Prediction of airway responsiveness to allergen from skin sensitivity to allergen and airway responsiveness to histamine. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;135:264267.
  • 56
    Frolund L, Svendsen UG, Nielsen NH, Weeke B, Madsen F. Bronchial allergen challenge: comparison between two different methods of provocation. Clin Allergy 1987;17:439448.
  • 57
    Tamura G, Mue S, Ishihara T, Takishima T. The single exposure method for inhalation challenge with allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1985;75:4754.
  • 58
    Inman MD, Watson R, Cockcroft DW, Wong BJ, Hargreave FE, O’Byrne PM. Reproducibility of allergen-induced early and late asthmatic responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:11911195.
  • 59
    Gauvreau GM, Watson RM, Rerecich TJ, Baswick E, Inman MD, O’Byrne PM. Repeatability of allergen-induced airway inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:6671.
  • 60
    Inman MD, Watson RM, Rerecich T, Gauvreau GM, Lutsky BN, Stryszak P et al. Dose-dependent effects of inhaled mometasone furoate on airway function and inflammation after allergen inhalation challenge. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:569574.
  • 61
    Shaver JR, O’Connor JJ, Pollice M, Cho SK, Kane GC, Fish JE et al. Pulmonary inflammation after segmental ragweed challenge in allergic asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:11891197.
  • 62
    Becky Kelly EA, Busse WW, Jarjour NN. A comparison of the airway response to segmental antigen bronchoprovocation in atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:7986.
  • 63
    Calhoun WJ, Jarjour NN, Gleich GJ, Stevens CA, Busse WW. Increased airway inflammation with segmental versus aerosol antigen challenge. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:14651471.
  • 64
    Cockcroft DW. Bronchial inhalation tests. II. Measurement of allergic (and occupational) bronchial responsiveness. Ann Allergy 1987;59:8998.
  • 65
    Gauvreau GM, Jordana M, Watson RM, Cockroft DW, O’Byrne PM. Effect of regular inhaled albuterol on allergen-induced late responses and sputum eosinophils in asthmatic subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156:17381745.
  • 66
    Cockcroft DW. Allergen-induced increase in airway responsiveness: use in assessing anti-inflammatory effects of drugs. In: MorleyJ, editor. Preventive Therapy in Asthma. London: Academic Press, 1991:141152.
  • 67
    The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines).; accessed 17 July 2007.
  • 68
    Hegardt B, Pauwels R, Van Der SM. Inhibitory effect of KWD 2131, terbutaline, and DSCG on the immediate and late allergen-induced bronchoconstriction. Allergy 1981;36:115122.
  • 69
    Cockcroft DW, Murdock KY. Comparative effects of inhaled salbutamol, sodium cromoglycate, and beclomethasone dipropionate on allergen-induced early asthmatic responses, late asthmatic responses, and increased bronchial responsiveness to histamine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987;79:734740.
  • 70
    Cockcroft DW, McParland CP, Britto SA, Swystun VA, Rutherford BC. Regular inhaled salbutamol and airway responsiveness to allergen. Lancet 1993;342:833837.
  • 71
    Cockcroft DW, O’Byrne PM, Swystun VA, Bhagat R. Regular use of inhaled albuterol and the allergen-induced late asthmatic response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:4449.
  • 72
    Yu DY, Galant SP, Gold WM. Inhibition of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction by atropine in asthmatic patients. J Appl Physiol 1972;32:823828.
  • 73
    Cockcroft DW, Ruffin RE, Hargreave FE. Effect of Sch1000 in allergen-induced asthma. Clin Allergy 1978;8:361372.
  • 74
    Twentyman OP, Finnerty JP, Harris A, Palmer J, Holgate ST. Protection against allergen-induced asthma by salmeterol. Lancet 1990;336:13381342.
  • 75
    Wong BJ, Dolovich J, Ramsdale EH, O’Byrne P, Gontovnick L, Denburg JA et al. Formoterol compared with beclomethasone and placebo on allergen-induced asthmatic responses. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;146:11561160.
  • 76
    Pedersen B, Dahl R, Larsen BB, Venge P. The effect of salmeterol on the early- and late-phase reaction to bronchial allergen and postchallenge variation in bronchial reactivity, blood eosinophils, serum eosinophil cationic protein, and serum eosinophil protein X. Allergy 1993;48:377382.
  • 77
    Weersink EJ, Aalbers R, Koeter GH, Kauffman HF, De Monchy JG, Postma DS. Partial inhibition of the early and late asthmatic response by a single dose of salmeterol. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:12621267.
  • 78
    Pizzichini MM, Kidney JC, Wong BJ, Morris MM, Efthimiadis A, Dolovich J et al. Effect of salmeterol compared with beclomethasone on allergen-induced asthmatic and inflammatory responses. Eur Respir J 1996;9:449455.
  • 79
    Brusasco V, Crimi E, Gherson G, Nardelli R, Oldani V, Francucci B et al. Actions other than smooth muscle relaxation may play a role in the protective effects of formoterol on the allergen-induced late asthmatic reaction. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2002;15:399406.
  • 80
    Calhoun WJ, Hinton KL, Kratzenberg JJ. The effect of salmeterol on markers of airway inflammation following segmental allergen challenge. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:881886.
  • 81
    Dente FL, Bacci E, Bartoli ML, Cianchetti S, Di FA, Giannini D et al. One week treatment with salmeterol does not prevent early and late asthmatic responses and sputum eosinophilia induced by allergen challenge in asthmatics. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2004;17:147153.
  • 82
    Dente FL, Bancalari L, Bacci E, Bartoli ML, Carnevali S, Cianchetti S et al. Effect of a single dose of salmeterol on the increase in airway eosinophils induced by allergen challenge in asthmatic subjects. Thorax 1999;54:622624.
  • 83
    Pauwels R, Van RD, Van Der SM, Johannesson N, Persson CG. The effect of theophylline and enprofylline on allergen-induced bronchoconstriction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1985;76:583590.
  • 84
    Crescioli S, Spinazzi A, Plebani M, Pozzani M, Mapp CE, Boschetto P et al. Theophylline inhibits early and late asthmatic reactions induced by allergens in asthmatic subjects. Ann Allergy 1991;66:245251.
  • 85
    Hendeles L, Harman E, Huang D, O’Brien R, Blake K, Delafuente J. Theophylline attenuation of airway responses to allergen: comparison with cromolyn metered-dose inhaler. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:505514.
  • 86
    Kraft M, Pak J, Borish L, Martin RJ. Theophylline’s effect on neutrophil function and the late asthmatic response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:251257.
  • 87
    Cockcroft DW, Murdock KY, Gore BP, O’Byrne PM, Manning P. Theophylline does not inhibit allergen-induced increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;83:913920.
  • 88
    Jaffar ZH, Sullivan P, Page C, Costello J. Low-dose theophylline modulates T-lymphocyte activation in allergen-challenged asthmatics. Eur Respir J 1996;9:456462.
  • 89
    Cockcroft DW, McParland CP, O’Byrne PM, Manning P, Friend JL, Rutherford BC et al. Beclomethasone given after the early asthmatic response inhibits the late response and the increased methacholine responsiveness and cromolyn does not. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91:11631168.
  • 90
    Kidney JC, Boulet LP, Hargreave FE, Deschesnes F, Swystun VA, O’Byrne PM et al. Evaluation of single-dose inhaled corticosteroid activity with an allergen challenge model. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:6570.
  • 91
    Burge PS, Efthimiou J, Turner-Warwick M, Nelmes PT. Double-blind trials of inhaled beclomethasone diproprionate and fluocortin butyl ester in allergen-induced immediate and late asthmatic reactions. Clin Allergy 1982;12:523531.
  • 92
    De Baets FM, Goeteyn M, Kerrebijn KF. The effect of two months of treatment with inhaled budesonide on bronchial responsiveness to histamine and house-dust mite antigen in asthmatic children. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142:581586.
  • 93
    Swystun VA, Bhagat R, Kalra S, Jennings B, Cockcroft DW. Comparison of 3 different doses of budesonide and placebo on the early asthmatic response to inhaled allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:363367.
  • 94
    Wong CS, Wahedna I, Pavord ID, Tattersfield AE. Effect of regular terbutaline and budesonide on bronchial reactivity to allergen challenge. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:12681273.
  • 95
    Dahl R, Pedersen B. Influence of nedocromil sodium on the dual asthmatic reaction after allergen challenge: a double blind, placebo controlled study. Eur J Respir Dis 1986;69:263265.
  • 96
    Davis BE, Cockcroft DW. Effect of a single dose of montelukast sodium on methacholine chloride PC20. Can Respir J 2005;12:2628.
  • 97
    Taylor IK, O’Shaughnessy KM, Fuller RW, Dollery CT. Effect of cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonist ICI 204.219 on allergen-induced bronchoconstriction and airway hyperreactivity in atopic subjects. Lancet 1991;337:690694.
  • 98
    Dahlen B, Zetterstrom O, Bjorck T, Dahlen SE. The leukotriene-antagonist ICI-204,219 inhibits the early airway reaction to cumulative bronchial challenge with allergen in atopic asthmatics. Eur Respir J 1994;7:324331.
  • 99
    Hamilton A, Faiferman I, Stober P, Watson RM, O’Byrne PM. Pranlukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, attenuates allergen-induced early- and late-phase bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:177183.
  • 100
    Diamant Z, Grootendorst DC, Veselic-Charvat M, Timmers MC, De Smet M, Leff JA et al. The effect of montelukast (MK-0476), a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, on allergen-induced airway responses and sputum cell counts in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:4251.
  • 101
    Leigh R, Vethanayagam D, Yoshida M, Watson RM, Rerecich T, Inman MD et al. Effects of montelukast and budesonide on airway responses and airway inflammation in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166:12121217.
  • 102
    Palmqvist M, Bruce C, Sjostrand M, Arvidsson P, Lotvall J. Differential effects of fluticasone and montelukast on allergen-induced asthma. Allergy 2005;60:6570.
  • 103
    Nakazawa T, Toyoda T, Furukawa M, Taya T, Kobayashi S. Inhibitory effects of various drugs on dual asthmatic responses in wheat flour-sensitive subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1976;58:19.
  • 104
    Adachi M, Kobayashi H, Aoki N, Iijima M, Kokubu F, Furuya A et al. A comparison of the inhibitory effects of ketotifen and disodium cromoglycate on bronchial responses to house dust, with special reference to the late asthmatic response. Pharmatherapeutica 1984;4:3642.
  • 105
    Rafferty P, Ng WH, Phillips G, Clough J, Church MK, Aurich R et al. The inhibitory actions of azelastine hydrochloride on the early and late bronchoconstrictor responses to inhaled allergen in atopic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;84:649657.
  • 106
    Hamid M, Rafferty P, Holgate ST. The inhibitory effect of terfenadine and flurbiprofen on early and late- phase bronchoconstriction following allergen challenge in atopic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 1990;20:261267.
  • 107
    Cockcroft DW, Keshmiri M, Murdock KY, Gore BC. Allergen-induced increase in airway responsiveness is not inhibited by acute treatment with ketotifen or clemastine. Ann Allergy 1992;68:245250.
  • 108
    Twentyman OP, Ollier S, Holgate ST. The effect of H1-receptor blockade on the development of early- and late-phase bronchoconstriction and increased bronchial responsiveness in allergen-induced asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91:11691178.
  • 109
    Wasserfallen JB, Leuenberger P, Pecoud A. Effect of cetirizine, a new H1 antihistamine, on the early and late allergic reactions in a bronchial provocation test with allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91:11891197.
  • 110
    Lai CK, Beasley R, Holgate ST. The effect of an increase in inhaled allergen dose after terfenadine on the occurrence and magnitude of the late asthmatic response. Clin Exp Allergy 1989;19:209216.
  • 111
    Lai CK, Twentyman OP, Holgate ST. The effect of an increase in inhaled allergen dose after rimiterol hydrobromide on the occurrence and magnitude of the late asthmatic response and the associated change in nonspecific bronchial responsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;140:917923.
  • 112
    Boulet LP, Chapman KR, Cote J, Kalra S, Bhagat R, Swystun VA et al. Inhibitory effects of an anti-IgE antibody E25 on allergen-induced early asthmatic response. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:18351840.
  • 113
    Fahy JV, Fleming HE, Wong HH, Liu JT, Su JQ, Reimann J et al. The effect of an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody on the early- and late-phase responses to allergen inhalation in asthmatic subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:18281834.
  • 114
    Patel PC, Rutherford BC, Lux J, Cockcroft DW. The effect of repirinast on airway responsiveness to methacholine and allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90:782788.
  • 115
    Barnes PJ. New therapies for asthma. Trends Mol Med 2006;12:515520.
  • 116
    Nagai H, Teramachi H, Tuchiya T. Recent advances in the development of anti-allergic drugs. Allergol Int 2006;55:3542.
  • 117
    Holt PG. Key factors in the development of asthma:atopy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:S172S175.
  • 118
    Kips JC, Inman MD, Jayaram L, Bel EH, Parameswaran K, Pizzichini MM et al. The use of induced sputum in clinical trials. Eur Respir J Suppl 2002;37:47s50s.
  • 119
    Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ. Exhaled biomarkers. Chest 2006;130:15411546.