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Keywords:

  • asthma;
  • allergy;
  • bronchial responsiveness;
  • doping;
  • exercise-induced asthma, sports

Aim:  The aims of part II is to review the current recommended treatment of exercise-induced asthma (EIA), respiratory and allergic disorders in sports, to review the evidence on possible improvement of performance in sports by asthma drugs and to make recommendations for their treatment.

Methods:  The literature cited with respect to the treatment of exercise induced asthma in athletes (and in asthma patients) is mainly based upon the systematic review given by Larsson et al. (Larsson K, Carlsen KH, Bonini S. Anti-asthmatic drugs: treatment of athletes and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. In: Carlsen KH, Delgado L, Del Giacco S, editors. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of exercise-related asthma, respiratory and allergic disorders in sports. Sheffield, UK: European Respiratory Journals Ltd, 2005:73–88) during the work of the Task Force. To assess the evidence of the literature regarding use of β2-agonists related to athletic performance, the Task Force searched Medline for relevant papers up to November 2006 using the present search words: asthma, bronchial responsiveness, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, athletes, sports, performance and β2-agonists. Evidence level and grades of recommendation were assessed according to Sign criteria.

Results:  Treatment recommendations for EIA and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes are set forth with special reference to controller and reliever medications. Evidence for lack of improvement of exercise performance by inhaled β2-agonists in healthy athletes serves as a basis for permitting their use. There is a lack of evidence of treatment effects of asthma drugs on EIA and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes whereas extensive documentation exists in treatment of EIA in patients with asthma. The documentation on lack of improvement on performance by common asthma drugs as inhaled β2-agonists with relationship to sports in healthy individuals is of high evidence, level (1+).

Conclusions:  Exercise induced asthma should be treated in athletes along same principles as in ordinary asthma patients with relevance to controller and reliever treatment after careful diagnosis. There is very high level of evidence for the lack of improvement in athletic performance by inhaled β2-agonists.