• 1
    Pujols L, Mullol J, Torrego A, Picado C. Glucocorticoid receptors in human airways. Allergy 2004;59:10421052.
  • 2
    Rhen T, Cidlowski JA. Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids – new mechanisms for old drugs. N Engl J Med 2005;353:17111723.
  • 3
    Pujols L, Mullol J, Picado C. Alpha and beta glucocorticoid receptors: relevance in airway diseases. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2007;7:9399.
  • 4
    Leung DY, Hamid Q, Vottero A, Szefler SJ, Surs W, Minshall E et al. Association of glucocorticoid insensitivity with increased expression of glucocorticoid receptor beta. J Exp Med 1997;186:15671574.
  • 5
    Hamid QA, Wenzel SE, Hauk PJ, Tsicopoulos A, Wallaert B, Lafitte J-J et al. Increased glucocorticoid receptor beta in airway cells of glucocortioid-insensitive asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:16001604.
  • 6
    Goleva E, Li L, Eves PT, Strand MJ, Martin RJ, Leung DY. Increased glucocorticoid receptor beta alters steroid response in glucocorticoid-insensitive asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;173:607616.
  • 7
    Hamilos DL, Leung DY, Muro S, Kahn AM, Hamilos SS, Thawley SE et al. GRbeta expression in nasal polyps inflammatory cells and its relationship to the antiinflammatory effects of intranasal fluticasone. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:5968.
  • 8
    Honda M, Orii F, Ayabe T, Imai S, Ashida T, Obara T et al. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor beta in lymphocytes of patients with glucocorticoid-resistant ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2000;118:859866.
  • 9
    Orii F, Ashida T, Nomura M, Maemoto A, Fujiki T, Ayabe T et al. Quantitative analysis for human glucocorticoid receptor alpha/beta mRNA in IBD. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;296:12861294.
  • 10
    Lewis-Tuffin LJ, Cidlowski JA. The physiology of human glucocorticoid receptor beta (hGRbeta) and glucocorticoid resistance. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006;1069:19.
  • 11
    Brönnegård M. Steroid receptor number. Individual variation and downregulation by treatment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:S28S33.
  • 12
    Korn SH, Wouters EFM, Wesseling G, Arends JW, Thunnissen FBJM. In vitro and in vivo modulation of alpha- and beta-glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in human bronchial epithelium. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:11171122.
  • 13
    Pujols L, Mullol J, Pérez M, Roca-Ferrer J, Juan M, Xaubet A et al. Expression of the human glucocorticoid receptor alpha and beta isoforms in human respiratory epithelial cells and their regulation by dexamethasone. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2001;24:4957.
  • 14
    Knutsson PU, Brönnegård M, Marcus C, Stierna P. Regulation of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in nasal mucosa by local administration of fluticasone and budesonide. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:655661.
  • 15
    Andersson O, Tobias NC, Grönneberg R, Brönnegard M, Stierna P, Magnus N. In vivo modulation of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA by inhaled fluticasone propionate in bronchial mucosa and blood lymphocytes in subjects with mild asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:595600.
  • 16
    Fokkens WJ, Lund V, Mullol J, on behalf of the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps group. EP3OS 2007: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007. Rhinology 2007;(Suppl. 20):1136.
  • 17
    Fokkens W, Lund V, Bachert C, Clement P, Helllings P, Holmstrom M et al. EAACI position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps: executive summary. Allergy 2005;60:583601.
  • 18
    Benítez P, Alobid I, De Haro J, Berenguer J, Bernal-Sprekelsen M, Pujols L et al. A short course of oral prednisone followed by intranasal budesonide is an effective treatment of severe nasal polyps. Laryngoscope 2006;116:770775.
  • 19
    Torrego A, Pujols L, Roca-Ferer J, Mullol J, Xaubet A, Picado C. Glucocorticoid receptor isoforms alpha and beta in in vitro cytokine-induced glucocorticoid insensitivity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;170:420425.
  • 20
    Casadevall J, Ventura PJ, Mullol J, Picado C. Intranasal challenge with aspirin in the diagnosis of aspirin intolerant asthma: evaluation of nasal response by acoustic rhinometry. Thorax 2000;55:921924.
  • 21
    Pujols L, Mullol J, Roca-Ferrer J, Torrego A, Xaubet A, Cidlowski JA et al. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor alpha- and beta- isoforms in human cells and tissues. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2002;283:C1324C1331.
  • 22
    Pujols L, Xaubet A, Ramírez J, Mullol J, Roca-Ferrer J, Torrego A et al. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor alpha and beta in steroid sensitive and steroid insensitive interstitial lung diseases. Thorax 2004;59:687693.
  • 23
    Choi BR, Kwon JH, Gong SJ, Kwon MS, Cho JH, Kim JH et al. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor mRNAs in glucocorticoid-resistant nasal polyps. Exp Mol Med 2006;38:466473.
  • 24
    Pujols L, Mullol J, Benítez P, Torrego A, Xaubet A, De Haro J et al. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor alpha and beta isoforms in human nasal mucosa and polyp epithelial cells. Respir Med 2003;97:9096.
  • 25
    Gagliardo R, Chanez P, Vignola AM, Bousquet J, Vachier I, Godard P et al. Glucocorticoid receptor alpha and beta in glucocorticoid dependent asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:713.
  • 26
    Sousa AR, Lane SJ, Cidlowski JA, Staynov DZ, Lee TH. Glucocorticoid resistance in asthma is associated with elevated in vivo expression of the glucocorticoid receptor beta-isoform. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:943950.
  • 27
    Bergeron C, Fukakusa M, Olivenstein R, Lemiere C, Shannon J, Ernst P et al. Increased glucocorticoid receptor-beta expression, but not decreased histone deacetylase 2, in severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;117:703705.
  • 28
    Li LB, Leung DY, Hall CF, Goleva E. Divergent expression and function of glucocorticoid receptor beta in human monocytes and T cells. J Leukoc Biol 2006;79:818827.
  • 29
    Oakley RH, Webster JC, Sar M, Parker CR, Cidlowski JA. Expression and subcellular distribution of the beta-isoform of the human glucocorticoid receptor. Endocrinology 1997;138:50285038.
  • 30
    Tliba O, Cidlowski JA, Amrani Y. CD38 expression is insensitive to steroid action in cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma by a mechanism involving the upregulation of the glucocorticoid receptor beta isoform. Mol Pharmacol 2006;69:588596.
  • 31
    Oakley RH, Jewell CM, Yudt MR, Bofetiado DM, Cidlowski JA. The dominant negative activity of the human glucocorticoid receptor beta isoform. Specificity and mechanisms of action. J Biol Chem 1999;274:2785727866.
  • 32
    Kanai N, Denburg J, Jordana M, Dolovich J. Nasal polyp inflammation. Effect of topical nasal steroid. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:10941100.
  • 33
    Hamilos DL, Thawley SE, Kramper MA, Kamil A, Hamid QA. Effect of intranasal fluticasone on cellular infiltration, endothelial adhesion molecule expression, and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in nasal polyp disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:7987.
  • 34
    Heasman SJ, Giles KM, Ward C, Rossi AG, Haslett C, Dransfield I. Glucocorticoid-mediated regulation of granulocyte apoptosis and macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells: implications for the resolution of inflammation. J Endocrinol 2003;178:2936.
  • 35
    Nguyen LT, Lim S, Oates T, Chung KF. Increase in airway neutrophils after oral but not inhaled corticosteroid therapy in mild asthma. Respir Med 2005;99:200207.
  • 36
    Henriksson G, Norlander T, Forsgren J, Stierna P. Effects of topical budesonide treatment on glucocorticoid receptor mRNA downregulation and cytokine patterns in nasal polyps. Am J Rhinol 2001;15:18.