Respiratory virus induction of alpha-, beta- and lambda-interferons in bronchial epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells

Authors

  • M. R. Khaitov,

    1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
    2. State National Center Institute of Immunology Federal Medicobiological Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russia
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  • V. Laza-Stanca,

    1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
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  • M. R. Edwards,

    1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
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  • R. P. Walton,

    1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
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  • G. Rohde,

    1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
    2. Department of Internal Medicine III, Pneumology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Bochum, Germany
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  • M. Contoli,

    1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
    2. Research Centre on Asthma and COPD, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
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  • A. Papi,

    1. Research Centre on Asthma and COPD, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
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  • L. A. Stanciu,

    1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
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  • S. V. Kotenko,

    1. Department of Internal Medicine III, Pneumology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Bochum, Germany
    2. Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey – New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA
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  • S. L. Johnston

    1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK
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  • Statement regarding prior publication
    The work has been partially published in Russian: Khaitov MR, Laza-Stantca V, Edwards MR, Johnston SL: Production of alpha-, beta-, and lambda-interferons by epithelial and mononuclear cells during acute respiratory viral infection. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 2006;7:63–69.

Sebastian L. Johnston
Department of Respiratory Medicine
National Heart and Lung Institute
Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity and MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma
Imperial College London
Norfolk Place
London W2 1PG
UK

Abstract

Background:  Respiratory viruses, predominantly rhinoviruses are the major cause of asthma exacerbations. Impaired production of interferon-β in rhinovirus infected bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and of the newly discovered interferon-λs in both BECs and bronchoalveolar lavage cells, is implicated in asthma exacerbation pathogenesis. Thus replacement of deficient interferon is a candidate new therapy for asthma exacerbations. Rhinoviruses and other respiratory viruses infect both BECs and macrophages, but their relative capacities for α-, β- and λ-interferon production are unknown.

Methods:  To provide guidance regarding which interferon type is the best candidate for development for treatment/prevention of asthma exacerbations we investigated respiratory virus induction of α-, β- and λ-interferons in BECs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by reverse transferase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results:  Rhinovirus infection of BEAS-2B BECs induced interferon-α mRNA expression transiently at 8 h and interferon-β later at 24 h while induction of interferon-λ was strongly induced at both time points. At 24 h, interferon-α protein was not detected, interferon-β was weakly induced while interferon-λ was strongly induced. Similar patterns of mRNA induction were observed in primary BECs, in response to both rhinovirus and influenza A virus infection, though protein levels were below assay detection limits. In PBMCs interferon-α, interferon-β and interferon-λ mRNAs were all strongly induced by rhinovirus at both 8 and 24 h and proteins were induced: interferon-α>-β>-λ. Thus respiratory viruses induced expression of α-, β- and λ-interferons in BECs and PBMCs. In PBMCs interferon-α>-β>-λ while in BECs, interferon-λ>-β>-α.

Conclusions:  We conclude that interferon-λs are likely the principal interferons produced during innate responses to respiratory viruses in BECs and interferon-αs in PBMCs, while interferon-β is produced by both cell types.

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