• 1
    Bousquet J, Van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108(Suppl.5):147334.
  • 2
    Quillen DM, Feller DB. Diagnosing rhinitis: allergic vs. nonallergic. Am Fam Physician 2006;73:15831590.
  • 3
    Sibbald B, Rink E. Epidemiology of seasonal and perennial rhinitis: clinical presentation and medical history. Thorax 1991;46:895901.
  • 4
    International Rhinitis Management Working Group. International consensus report on diagnosis and management of rhinitis. Allergy 1994;49(Suppl. 19):134.
  • 5
    Dykewicz MS, Fineman S. Executive summary of Joint Task Force Practice Parameters on Diagnosis and Management of Rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998;81: 463468.
  • 6
    Bousquet J, Khaltaev N, Cruz AA, Denburg J, Fokkens WJ, Togias A et al. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) 2008 update (in collaboration with the World Health Organization, GA(2)LEN and AllerGen). Allergy 2008;63(Suppl. 86):8160.
  • 7
    Van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C, Passalacqua G, Bousquet J, Canonica GW, Durham SR et al. Consensus statement on the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Allergy 2000;55:116134.
  • 8
    Al Sayyad JJ, Fedorowicz Z, Alhashimi D, Jamal A. Topical nasal steroids for intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 (Issue 1).
  • 9
    Nathan RA. The burden of allergic rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Proc 2007;28:39.
  • 10
    Cruz AA, Popov T, Pawankar R, Annesi-Maesano I, Fokkens W, Kemp J et al. Common characteristics of upper and lower airways in rhinitis and asthma: ARIA update, in collaboration with GA(2)LEN. Allergy 2007;62(Suppl. 84):141.
  • 11
    Bousquet J, Bullinger M, Fayol C, Marquis P, Valentin B, Burtin B. Assessment of quality of life in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis with the French version of the SF-36 Health Status Questionnaire. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:182188.
  • 12
    Nascimento Silva M, Naspitz C, Sole D. Evaluation of quality of life in children and teenagers with allergic rhinitis: adaptation and validation of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2001;29:111118.
  • 13
    Blanc PD, Trupin L, Eisner M, Earnest G, Katz PP, Israel L et al. The work impact of asthma and rhinitis. Findings from a population based survey. J Clin Epidemiol 2001;54:610618.
  • 14
    Szeinbach SL, Seoane-Vazquez EC, Beyer A, Williams PB. The impact of allergic rhinitis on work productivity. Prim Care Respir J 2007;16:98105.
  • 15
    Juniper EF, Thompson AK, Ferrie PJ, Roberts JN. Validation of the standardized version of the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:364369.
  • 16
    Blaiss MS. Allergic rhinitis and impairment issues in schoolchildren: a consensus report. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:19371952.
  • 17
    Santos CB, Pratt EL, Hanks C, McCann J, Craig TJ. Allergic rhinitis and its effect on sleep, fatigue, and daytime somnolence. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006;97:579586.
  • 18
    Kremer B, Den Hartog HM, Jolles J. Relationship between allergic rhinitis, disturbed cognitive functions and psychological well-being. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32:13101315.
  • 19
    Bavbek S, Kumbasar H, Tugcu H, Misirligil Z. Psychological status of patients with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2002;12:204210.
  • 20
    Wilson DR, Torres Lima M, Durham SR. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003 (Issue 2).
  • 21
    Penagos M, Compalati E, Tarantini F, Baena-Cagnani R, Huerta J, Passalacqua G et al. Efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis in pediatric patients 3 to 18 years of age: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006;97:141148.
  • 22
    Long A, McFadden C, DeVine D, Chew P, Kupelnick B, Lau J. Management of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2002.
  • 23
    Weiner JM, Abramson MJ, Puy RM. Intranasal corticosteroids versus oral H1 receptor antagonists in allergic rhinitis: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Br Med J 1998;317:16241629.
  • 24
    Drummond M, Sculpher MJ, Torrance GW, O’Brien BJ, Stoddart GL. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes, 3rd Rev. edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • 25
    Reed SD, Lee TA, McCrory DC. The economic burden of allergic rhinitis. A critical evaluation of the literature. Pharmacoeconomics 2004;22:345361.
  • 26
    Weiss KB, Sullivan SD. The health economics of asthma and rhinitis. I. Assessing the economic impact. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:38.
  • 27
    Schoenwetter WF, Dupclay L Jr, Appajosyula S, Botteman MF, Pashos CL. Economic impact and quality-of-life burden of allergic rhinitis. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:305317.
  • 28
    Celik G, Mungan D, Abadoğlu O, Pinar NM, Misirligil Z. Direct cost assessments in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis living in Ankara, Turkey. Allergy Asthma Proc 2004;25:107113.
  • 29
    Schramm B, Ehlken B, Smala A, Quednau K, Berger K, Nowak D. Cost of illness of atopic asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis in Germany: 1-year retrospective study. Eur Respir J 2003;21:116122.
  • 30
    Dessi P, Allaert FA, Urbinelli R, Verriere JL. Medico-economic aspects of the management of perennial allergic rhinitis in general medicine. Allergy Immunol 1998;30:277283.
  • 31
    Crown WH, Olufade A, Smith MW, Nathan R. Seasonal versus perennial allergic rhinitis: drug and medical resource use patterns. Value Health 2003;6:448456.
  • 32
    Bousquet J, Demarteau N, Mullol J, Van Den Akker-van Marle ME, Van Ganse E, Bachert C et al. Costs associated with persistent allergic rhinitis are reduced by levocetirizine. Allergy 2005;60:788794.
  • 33
    McMenamin P. Costs of hay fever in the United States in 1990. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1994;73:3539.
  • 34
    Malone DC, Lawson KA, Smith DH, Arrighi HM, Battista C. A cost of illness study of allergic rhinitis in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:2227.
  • 35
    Law AW, Reed SD, Sundy JS, Schulman KA. Direct costs of allergic rhinitis in the United States: estimates from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:296300.
  • 36
    Storms W, Meltzer EO, Nathan RA, Selner JC. The economic impact of allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:820824.
  • 37
    Lamb CE, Ratner PH, Johnson CE, Ambegaonkar AJ, Joshi AV, Day D et al. Economic impact of workplace productivity losses due to allergic rhinitis compared with select medical conditions in the United States from an employer perspective. Curr Med Res Opin 2006;22:12031210.
  • 38
    Mackowiak JI. The health and economic impact of rhinitis. Am J Managed Care 1997;3:818.
  • 39
    Ciprandi G, Tosca M, Passalacqua G, Canonica GW. Long-term cetirizine treatment reduces allergic symptoms and drug prescriptions in children with mite allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2001;87:222226.
  • 40
    Sullivan PW, Follin SL, Nichol MB. Cost-benefit analysis of first-generation antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Pharmacoeconomics 2004;22:929942.
  • 41
    Kozma CM, Schulz RM, Sclar DA, Kral KM, Mackowiak JI. A comparison of costs and efficacy of intranasal fluticasone propionate and terfenadine tablets for seasonal allergic rhinitis. Clin Ther 1996;18:334346.
  • 42
    Lange B, Lukat KF, Rettig K, Holtappels G, Bachert C. Efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and tolerability of mometasone furoate, levocabastine, and disodium cromoglycate nasal sprays in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005;95:272282.
  • 43
    Keith PK, Haddon J, Birch S, the Rhinocort Study Group. A cost-benefit analysis using a willingness-to-pay questionnaire of intranasal budesonide for seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;84:5562.
  • 44
    Ståhl E, Van Rompay W, Wang ECY, Thomson DMP. Cost-effectiveness analysis of budesonide aqueous nasal spray and fluticasone propionate nasal spray in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;84:397402.
  • 45
    Bachert C, Bousquet J, Canonica GW, Durham SR, Klimek L, Mullol J et al. Levocetirizine improves quality of life and reduces costs in long-term management of persistent allergic rhinitis. J Allergy, Asthma Immunol 2004;114:838844.
  • 46
    Sullivan PW, Follin SL, Nichol MB. Transitioning the second-generation antihistamines to over-the-counter status: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Med Care 2003;41:13821395.
  • 47
    Marple BF, Fornadley JA, Patel AA, Fineman SM, Fromer L, Krouse JH et al. Keys to successful management of patients with allergic rhinitis: focus on patient confidence, compliance, and satisfaction. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007;136(Suppl. 6):107124.
  • 48
    Brunton SA, Fromer LM. Treatment options for the management of perennial allergic rhinitis, with a focus on intranasal corticosteroids. South Med J 2007;100:701708.
  • 49
    Epstein RM, Alper BS, Quill TE. Communicating evidence for participatory decision making. JAMA 2004;291:23592366.
  • 50
    Juniper EF, Guyatt GH. Development and testing of a new measure of health status for clinical trials in rhinoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21:7783.
  • 51
    The EuroQol Group. EuroQoL—a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Pol 1990;16:199208.
  • 52
    Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 1992;30:473483.