Effect of natural seasonal pollen exposure and repeated nasal allergen provocations on elevation of exhaled nitric oxide
Article first published online: 21 JUL 2009
© 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Volume 64, Issue 11, pages 1629–1634, November 2009
How to Cite
Bergmann-Hug, K., Wirth, R., Henseler, M., Helbling, A., Pichler, W. J. and Schnyder, B. (2009), Effect of natural seasonal pollen exposure and repeated nasal allergen provocations on elevation of exhaled nitric oxide. Allergy, 64: 1629–1634. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02087.x
- Issue published online: 8 OCT 2009
- Article first published online: 21 JUL 2009
- Accepted for publication 29 October 2008
- allergic rhinitis;
- exhaled nitric oxide;
- nasal allergen provocations
Background: Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a marker for allergic airway inflammation. We wondered whether in patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis only (i) natural pollen exposure and (ii) artificial pollen exposure by repeated nasal allergen provocations may lead to an elevation of FENO.
Methods: In two prospective studies, we compared the FENO of nonatopic controls with the FENO of nonasthmatic individuals with mild intermittent rhinitis to tree and/or grass pollen. Study I: 13 atopic individuals and seven controls had measurements of FENO, blood eosinophils and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) before, during and after pollen season. Study II: 16 atopic individuals and 12 controls had nasal allergen provocations on four following days out of pollen season, with daily measurements of FENO before, 2 and 6 h after provocation, and determination of blood eosinophils, ECP and FEV1 at baseline, on days 5 and 10–12.
Results: Natural pollen exposure (study I) caused a significant elevation of FENO in allergic individuals. Nasal allergen provocations (study II) did not elicit a statistically significant rise neither of FENO nor of blood eosinophils between baseline and day 5. However, a subgroup of four individuals with a rise of blood eosinophils during nasal allergen provocations showed also a rise of FENO.
Conclusions: We suppose that in allergic rhinitis a concomitant reaction of the bronchial system is dependent on a strong local inflammation leading to a generalized immune stimulation.