• chronic urticaria;
  • C-reactive protein;
  • d-dimer;
  • disease activity;
  • fibrin degradation products

To cite this article: Takahagi S, Mihara S, Iwamoto K, Morioke S, Okabe T, Kameyoshi Y, Hide M. Coagulation/fibrinolysis and inflammation markers are associated with disease activity in patients with chronic urticaria. Allergy 2010; 65: 649–656.


Background:  The evaluation of disease severity and activity of chronic urticaria (CU) is essential for the adequate treatment of patients. However, there is no reliable biomarker for such evaluations. Recently, markers of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis have been revealed to be elevated in severe cases of CU. In this article, we studied the coagulation/fibrinolysis and inflammation markers and their relationship to disease activity in patients with CU.

Methods:  Plasma fibrin degradation products (FDP), d-dimer and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured with the assessment of disease severity and skin reaction to autologous serum in 82 patients with CU and 37 patients with acute urticaria, idiopathic angioedema (AE) or inducible types of urticaria (IU).

Results:  The levels of FDP in patients with CU were significantly higher than those in patients with IU, but no other differences in FDP, d-dimer and CRP were observed among patients with different types of urticaria. These markers of patients with CU were well correlated with each other and significantly associated with disease severity of CU, but not with skin reactions to autologous serum. In 37 patients with CU, levels of all these parameters reduced as their disease condition improved, while they increased when the disease became aggravated. Regarding FDP, this relationship was observed even if FDP concentrations were within normal range throughout the study.

Conclusions:  The measurement of plasma FDP, d-dimer and serum CRP may be useful for the assessment of disease activity of CU.