• 1
    Masoli M, Fabian D, Holt S, Beasley R. The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report. Allergy 2004;59:469478.
  • 2
    Kay AB. Allergy and allergic diseases. First of two parts. N Engl J Med 2001;344:3037.
  • 3
    Strachan DP. Parallels with the epidemiology of other allergic diseases. In: WilliamsHC, editor. The epidemiology of atopic dermatitis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000:221232.
  • 4
    Pearce N, Douwes J. Commentary: asthma time trends--mission accomplished? Int J Epidemiol 2005;34:10181019.
  • 5
    Ponsonby AL, Glasgow N, Pezic A, Dwyer T, Ciszek K, Kljakovic M. A temporal decline in asthma but not eczema prevalence from 2000 to 2005 at school entry in the Australian Capital Territory with further consideration of country of birth. Int J Epidemiol 2008;37:559569.
  • 6
    Van Schayck CP, Smit HA. The prevalence of asthma in children: a reversing trend. Eur Respir J 2005;26:647650.
  • 7
    Sunderl RS, Fleming DM. Continuing decline in acute asthma episodes in the community. Arch Dis Child 2004;89:282285.
  • 8
    Castro HJ, Malka-Rais J, Bellanti JA. Current epidemiology of asthma: emerging patterns of asthma. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 2005;26:7982.
  • 9
    Lawson JA, Senthilselvan A. Asthma epidemiology: has the crisis passed?. Current Opinions in Pulmunary Medicine 2005;11:7984.
  • 10
    The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (last accessed 21/07/09). [cited].
  • 11
    European Community Respiratory Health Survey (last accessed 21/07/09). [cited].
  • 12
    Appraisal Tools (last accessed 20/07/09). [cited].
  • 13
    Zar HJ, Ehrlich RI, Workman L, Weinberg EG. The changing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in African adolescents from 1995 to 2002. Pediatric Allergy & Immunology 2007;18:560565.
  • 14
    Bouayad Z, Aichane A, Afif A, Benouhoud N, Trombati N, Chan-Yeung M et al. Prevalence and trend of self-reported asthma and other allergic disease symptoms in Morocco: ISAAC phase I and III. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006;10:371377.
  • 15
    Haileamlak A, Lewis SA, Britton J, Venn AJ, Woldemariam D, Hubbard R et al. Validation of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) and UK criteria for atopic eczema in Ethiopian children. Br J Dermatol 2005;152:735741.
  • 16
    Hailu S, Tessema T, Silverman M. Prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergies in schoolchildren in Gondar town and its vicinity, northwest Ethiopia. Pediatr Pulmonol 2003;35:427432.
  • 17
    Melaku K, Berhane Y. Prevalence of wheeze and asthma related symptoms among school children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J 1999;37:247254.
  • 18
    Falade AG, Olawuyi F, Osinusi K, Onadeko BO. Prevalence and severity of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and atopic eczema in secondary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria. East Afr Med J 1998;75:695698.
  • 19
    Falade AG, Olawuyi JF, Osinusi K, Onadeko BO. Prevalence and severity of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old Nigerian primary school children: the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood. Med Princ Pract 2004;13:2025.
  • 20
    Esamai F, Anabwani GM. Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and dermatitis in primary school children in Uasin Gishu district, Kenya. East Afr Med J 1996;73:474478.
  • 21
    Esamai F, Ayaya S, Nyandiko W. Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and dermatitis in primary school children in Uasin Gishu district, Kenya. East Afr Med J 2002;79:514518.
  • 22
    Khaldi F, Fakhfakh R, Mattoussi N, Ben Ali B, Zouari S, Khemiri M. Prevalence and severity of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema in “Grand Tunis” schoolchildren: ISAAC. Tunis Med 2005;83:269273.
  • 23
    Strachan D, Sibbald B, Weiland S, Ait-Khaled N, Anabwani G, Anderson HR et al. Worldwide variations in prevalence of symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1997;8:161176.
  • 24
    The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Steering Committee. Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema. Lancet 1998;351:12251232.
  • 25
    Pearce N, Ait-Khaled N, Beasley R, Mallol J, Keil U, Mitchell E et al. Worldwide trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: phase III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 2007;62:758766.
  • 26
    Wang XS, Tan TN, Shek LP, Chng SY, Hia CP, Ong NB et al. The prevalence of asthma and allergies in Singapore; data from two ISAAC surveys seven years apart. Arch Dis Child 2004;89:423426.
  • 27
    Trakultivakorn M, Sangsupawanich P, Vichyanond P. Time trends of the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in Thai children-ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) Phase Three. Journal of Asthma 2007;44:609611.
  • 28
    Hong SJ, Lee MS, Sohn MH, Shim JY, Han YS, Park KS et al. Self-reported prevalence and risk factors of asthma among Korean adolescents: 5-year follow-up study, 1995-2000. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34:15561562.
  • 29
    Lee Y-L, Hwang B-F, Lin Y-C, Guo YL, Taiwan ISG. Time trend of asthma prevalence among school children in Taiwan: ISAAC phase I and III surveys. Pediatric Allergy & Immunology 2007;18:188195.
  • 30
    Wong GW, Leung TF, Ko FW, Lee KK, Lam P, Hui DS et al. Declining asthma prevalence in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34:15501555.
  • 31
    Ko FW, Lai CK, Woo J, Ho SC, Ho CW, Goggins W et al. 12-year change in prevalence of respiratory symptoms in elderly Chinese living in Hong Kong. Respir Med 2006;100:15981607.
  • 32
    Romano-Zelekha O, Graif Y, Garty B-Z, Livne I, Green MS, Shohat T. Trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms and allergic diseases in Israeli adolescents: results from a national survey 2003 and comparison with 1997. Journal of Asthma 2007;44:365369.
  • 33
    Yan DC, Ou LS, Tsai TL, Wu WF, Huang JL. Prevalence and severity of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in 13- to 14-year-old children in Taipei, Taiwan. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005;95:579585.
  • 34
    Teeratakulpisarn J, Wiangnon S, Kosalaraksa P, Heng S. Surveying the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in school-children in Khon Kaen, Northeastern Thailand using the ISAAC questionnaire: phase III. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2004;22:175181.
  • 35
    Chakravarthy S, Singh RB, Swaminathan S, Venkatesan P. Prevalence of asthma in urban and rural children in Tamil Nadu. Natl Med J India 2002;15:260263.
  • 36
    Mistry R, Wickramasingha N, Ogston S, Singh M, Devasiri V, Mukhopadhyay S. Wheeze and urban variation in South Asia. Eur J Pediatr 2004;163:145147.
  • 37
    Toelle BG, Ng K, Belousova E, Salome CM, Peat JK, Marks GB. Prevalence of asthma and allergy in schoolchildren in Belmont, Australia: three cross sectional surveys over 20 years. Bmj 2004;328:386387.
  • 38
    Wilson DH, Adams RJ, Appleton SL, Hugo G, Wilkinson D, Hiller J et al. Prevalence of asthma and asthma action plans in South Australia: population surveys from 1990 to 2001. Med J Aust 2003;178:483485.
  • 39
    Wilson DH, Adams RJ, Tucker G, Appleton S, Taylor AW, Ruffin RE. Trends in asthma prevalence and population changes in South Australia, 1990-2003. Med J Aust 2006;184:226229.
  • 40
    Downs SH, Marks GB, Sporik R, Belosouva EG, Car NG, Peat JK. Continued increase in the prevalence of asthma and atopy. Arch Dis Child 2001;84:2023.
  • 41
    Ng Man Kwong G, Proctor A, Billings C, Duggan R, Das C, Whyte MK et al. Increasing prevalence of asthma diagnosis and symptoms in children is confined to mild symptoms. Thorax 2001;56:312314.
  • 42
    Shamssain M. Trends in the prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema in 6- to 7- and 13- to 14-yr-old children from the north-east of England. Pediatric Allergy & Immunology 2007;18:149153.
  • 43
    Anderson HR, Ruggles R, Strachan DP, Austin JB, Burr M, Jeffs D et al. Trends in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, hay fever, and eczema in 12-14 year olds in the British Isles, 1995-2002: questionnaire survey. Bmj 2004;328:10521053.
  • 44
    Burr ML, Wat D, Evans C, Dunstan FD, Doull IJ. Asthma prevalence in 1973, 1988 and 2003. Thorax 2006;61:296299.
  • 45
    Upton MN, McConnachie A, McSharry C, Hart CL, Smith GD, Gillis CR et al. Intergenerational 20 year trends in the prevalence of asthma and hay fever in adults: the Midspan family study surveys of parents and offspring. Bmj 2000;321:8892.
  • 46
    Rizwan S, Reid J, Kelly Y, Bundred PE, Pearson M, Brabin BJ. Trends in childhood and parental asthma prevalence in Merseyside, 1991-1998. J Public Health (Oxf) 2004;26:337342.
  • 47
    Butland BK, Strachan DP, Crawley-Boevey EE, Anderson HR. Childhood asthma in South London: trends in prevalence and use of medical services 1991-2002. Thorax 2006;61:383387.
  • 48
    Anderson HR, Gupta R, Strachan DP, Limb ES. 50 years of asthma: UK trends from 1955 to 2004. Thorax 2007;62:8590.
  • 49
    Soriano JB, Kiri VA, Maier WC, Strachan D. Increasing prevalence of asthma in UK primary care during the 1990s. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7:415421.
  • 50
    Gupta R, Sheikh A, Strachan DP, Anderson HR. Burden of allergic disease in the UK: secondary analyses of national databases. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34:520526.
  • 51
    Anandan C, Gupta R, Simpson C, Fischbacher C, Sheikh A. Epidemiology and disease burden from allergic disease in Scotland: analyses of national databases. Journal of The Royal Society of Medicine 2009;102:431442.
  • 52
    Hippisley-Cox J, Jumbu G, Fenty J, Holland R, Porter A, Heaps M. Primary care epidemiology of allergic disorders: analysis using QRESEARCH database 2001–2006. Final Report to the Information Centre and Department of Health. QRESEARCH and The Information Centre for health and social care. Nottingham. 2006.
  • 53
  • 54
  • 55
    Shabu A, Flanagan O, Dineen B, Loftus BG. Prevalence of asthma in Galway school children 2004. Ir Med J 2007;100:491493.
  • 56
    Maziak W, Behrens T, Brasky TM, Duhme H, Rzehak P, Weiland SK et al. Are asthma and allergies in children and adolescents increasing? Results from ISAAC phase I and phase III surveys in Munster, Germany Allergy 2003;58:572579.
  • 57
    Bjerg-Backlund A, Perzanowski MS, Platts-Mills T, Sandstrom T, Lundback B, Ronmark E. Asthma during the primary school ages--prevalence, remission and the impact of allergic sensitization. Allergy 2006;61:549555.
  • 58
    Migliore E, Piccioni P, Garrone G, Ciccone G, Borraccino A, Bugiani M. Changing prevalence of asthma in Turin school children between 1994 and 1999. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2005;63:7478.
  • 59
    Galassi C, De Sario M, Biggeri A, Bisanti L, Chellini E, Ciccone G et al. Changes in prevalence of asthma and allergies among children and adolescents in Italy: 1994-2002. Pediatrics 2006;117:3442.
  • 60
    Ones U, Akcay A, Tamay Z, Guler N, Zencir M. Rising trend of asthma prevalence among Turkish schoolchildren (ISAAC phases I and III). Allergy 2006;61:14481453.
  • 61
    Garcia-Marcos L, Quiros AB, Hernandez GG, Guillen-Grima F, Diaz CG, Urena IC et al. Stabilization of asthma prevalence among adolescents and increase among schoolchildren (ISAAC phases I and III) in Spain. Allergy 2004;59:13011307.
  • 62
    Roel E, Faresjo A, Zetterstrom O, Trell E, Faresjo T. Clinically diagnosed childhood asthma and follow-up of symptoms in a Swedish case control study. BMC Fam Pract 2005;6:16.
  • 63
    Banac S, Tomulic KL, Ahel V, Rozmanic V, Simundic N, Zubovic S, et al. Prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in Croatian children is increasing: survey study. Croat Med J 2004;45:721726.
  • 64
    Stipic-Markovic A, Pevec B, Pevec MR, Custovic A. [Prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and atopic eczema: ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) in a population of schoolchildren in Zagreb]. Acta Med Croatica 2003;57:281285.
  • 65
    Porsbjerg C, Von Linstow ML, Ulrik CS, Nepper-Christensen S, Backer V. Risk factors for onset of asthma: a 12-year prospective follow-up study. Chest 2006;129:309316.
  • 66
    Anthracopoulos MB, Liolios E, Panagiotakos DB, Triantou K, Priftis KN. Prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in Patras, Greece: four questionnaire surveys during 1978–2003. Arch Dis Child 2007;92:209212.
  • 67
    Latvala J, Von Hertzen L, Lindholm H, Haahtela T. Trends in prevalence of asthma and allergy in Finnish young men: nationwide study, 1966–2003. Bmj 2005;330:11861187.
  • 68
    Selnes A, Nystad W, Bolle R, Lund E. Diverging prevalence trends of atopic disorders in Norwegian children. Results from three cross-sectional studies. Allergy 2005;60:894899.
  • 69
    Hedman L, Lindgren B, Perzanowski M, Ronmark E. Agreement between parental and self-completed questionnaires about asthma in teenagers. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2005;16:176181.
  • 70
    Grize L, Gassner M, Wuthrich B, Bringolf-Isler B, Takken-Sahli K, Sennhauser FH et al. Trends in prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in 5-7-year old Swiss children from 1992 to 2001. Allergy 2006;61:556562.
  • 71
    Ronchetti R, Villa MP, Barreto M, Rota R, Pagani J, Martella S et al. Is the increase in childhood asthma coming to an end? Findings from three surveys of schoolchildren in Rome, Italy. Eur Respir J 2001;17:881886.
  • 72
    Zollner IK, Weiland SK, Piechotowski I, Gabrio T, Von Mutius E, Link B et al. No increase in the prevalence of asthma, allergies, and atopic sensitisation among children in Germany: 1992–2001. Thorax 2005;60:545548.
  • 73
    Carlsen KH. Asthma--a condition of our time, a condition in change?. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2001;121:836840.
  • 74
    Mommers M, Gielkens-Sijstermans C, Swaen GM, Van Schayck CP. Trends in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and treatment in Dutch children over a 12 year period: results of the fourth consecutive survey. Thorax 2005;60:9799.
  • 75
    Akinbami LJ, Schoendorf KC. Trends in childhood asthma: prevalence, health care utilization, and mortality. Pediatrics 2002;110:315322.
  • 76
    Mannino DM, Homa DM, Akinbami LJ, Moorman JE, Gwynn C, Redd SC. Surveillance for asthma--United States, 1980-1999. MMWR Surveill Summ 2002;51:113.
  • 77
    Gessner BD, Neeno T. Trends in asthma prevalence, hospitalization risk, and inhaled corticosteroid use among alaska native and nonnative medicaid recipients younger than 20 years. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2005;94:372379.
  • 78
    Barraza-Villarreal A, Hernandez-Cadena L, Moreno-Macias H, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Romieu I. Trends in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in schoolchildren from Cuernavaca, Mexico. Allergy & Asthma Proceedings 2007;28:368374.
  • 79
    Riedi CA, Rosario NA, Ribas LF, Backes AS, Kleiniibing GF, Popija M et al. Increase in prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis but not asthma and atopic eczema in teenagers. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2005;15:183188.
  • 80
    Sole D, Melo KC, Camelo-Nunes IC, Freitas LS, Britto M, Rosario NA et al. Changes in the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases among Brazilian schoolchildren (13-14 years old): comparison between ISAAC Phases One and Three. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2007;53:1321.
  • 81
    Mallol J, Sole D, Asher I, Clayton T, Stein R, Soto-Quiroz M. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in Latin America: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Pediatr Pulmonol 2000;30:439444.
  • 82
    Monteil MA, Joseph G, Changkit C, Wheeler G, Antoine RM. Comparison of prevalence and severity of asthma among adolescents in the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago: results of a nationwide cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health 2005;5:96.
  • 83
    Kabir ML, Rahman F, Hassan MQ, Ahamed F, Mridha MA. Asthma, atopic eczema and allergic rhino-conjunctivitis in school children. Mymensingh Med J 2005;14:4145.
  • 84
    Priftanji AV, Qirko E, Layzell JC, Burr ML, Fifield R. Asthma and allergy in Albania. Allergy 1999;54:10421047.
  • 85
    Papageorgiou N, Gaga M, Marossis C, Reppas C, Avarlis P, Kyriakou M et al. Prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms in Athens, Greece. Respir Med 1997;91:8388.
  • 86
    Shohat T, Golan G, Tamir R, Green MS, Livne I, Davidson Y et al. Prevalence of asthma in 13-14 yr-old schoolchildren across Israel. Eur Respir J 2000;15:725729.
  • 87
    Ramadan FM, Khoury MN, Hajjar TA, Mroueh SM. Prevalence of allergic diseases in children in Beirut: comparison to worldwide data. J Med Liban 1999;47:216221.
  • 88
    Al-Maskari F, Bener A, Al-Kaabi A, Al-Suwaidi N, Norman N, Brebner J. Asthma and respiratory symptoms among school children in United Arab Emirates. Allerg Immunol (Paris) 2000;32:159163.
  • 89
    Behbehani NA, Abal A, Syabbalo NC, Abd Azeem A, Shareef E, Al-Momen J. Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in 13- to 14-year-old children in Kuwait: an ISAAC study. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;85:5863.
  • 90
    El-Sharif NA, Nemery B, Barghuthy F, Mortaja S, Qasrawi R, Abdeen Z. Geographical variations of asthma and asthma symptoms among schoolchildren aged 5 to 8 years and 12 to 15 years in Palestine: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2003;90:6371.
  • 91
    Janahi IA, Bener A, Bush A. Prevalence of asthma among Qatari schoolchildren: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, Qatar. Pediatr Pulmonol 2006;41:8086.
  • 92
    Netuveli G, Hurwitz B, Sheikh A. Lineages of language the diagnosis of asthma. J R Soc Med 2007;100:1924.
  • 93
    Haahtela T, Klaukka T, Koskela K, Erhola M, Laitinen LA. Asthma programme in Finland: a community problem needs community solutions. Thorax 2001;56:806814.
  • 94
    Manning PJ, Goodman P, O’Sullivan A, Clancy L. Rising prevalence of asthma but declining wheeze in teenagers (1995-2003): ISAAC protocol. Ir Med J 2007;100:614615.
  • 95
    Harangi F, Lorinczy K, Lazar A, Orkenyi M, Adonyi M, Sebok B. Prevalence of childhood asthma in Baranya County, Hungary, between 2003 and 2006. Orvosi Hetilap 2007;148:16431648.
  • 96
    Abramidze T, Gotua M, Rukhadze M, Gamkrelidze A. Prevalence of asthma and allergies among adolescents in Georgia: comparison between two surveys. Georgian Medical News 2007;3841.
  • 97
    Urrutia I, Aguirre U, Sunyer J, Plana E, Muniozguren N, Martinez-Moratalla J et al. Changes in the prevalence of asthma in the Spanish cohort of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS-II). Archivos de Bronconeumologia 2007;43:425430.
  • 98
    Endre L, Lang S, Vamos A, Bobvos J, Paldy A, Farkas I et al. Increase in prevalence of childhood asthma in Budapest between 1995 and 2003: correlation with air pollution data and total pollen count. Orvosi Hetilap 2007;148:211216.