Edited by: Thomas Bieber
Risk of first-generation H1-antihistamines: a GA2LEN position paper
Article first published online: 8 FEB 2010
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Volume 65, Issue 4, pages 459–466, April 2010
How to Cite
Church, M. K., Maurer, M., Simons, F. E. R., Bindslev-Jensen, C., Van Cauwenberge, P., Bousquet, J., Holgate, S. T. and Zuberbier, T. (2010), Risk of first-generation H1-antihistamines: a GA2LEN position paper. Allergy, 65: 459–466. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02325.x
- Issue published online: 1 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 8 FEB 2010
- Accepted for publication 11 December 2009
- adverse event;
- allergic rhinitis;
- cognitive function;
To cite this article: Church MK, Maurer M, Simons FER, Bindslev-Jensen C, van Cauwenberge P, Bousquet J, Holgate ST, Zuberbier T. Risk of first-generation H1-antihistamines: a GA2LEN position paper. Allergy 2010; 65: 459–466.
First-generation H1-antihistamines obtained without prescription are the most frequent form of self-medication for allergic diseases, coughs and colds and insomnia even though they have potentially dangerous unwanted effects which are not recognized by the general public.
Aims: To increase consumer protection by bringing to the attention of regulatory authorities, physicians and the general public the potential dangers of the indiscriminate use first-generation H1-antihistamines purchased over-the counter in the absence of appropriate medical supervision.
Methods: A GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) task force assessed the unwanted side-effects and potential dangers of first-generation H1-antihistamines by reviewing the literature (Medline and Embase) and performing a media audit of US coverage from 1996 to 2008 of accidents and fatal adverse events in which these drugs were implicated.
Results: First-generation H1-antihistamines, all of which are sedating, are generally regarded as safe by laypersons and healthcare professionals because of their long-standing use. However, they reduce rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, impair learning and reduce work efficiency. They are implicated in civil aviation, motor vehicle and boating accidents, deaths as a result of accidental or intentional overdosing in infants and young children and suicide in teenagers and adults. Some exhibit cardiotoxicity in overdose.
Conclusions: This review raises the issue of better consumer protection by recommending that older first-generation H1-antihistamines should no longer be available over-the-counter as prescription- free drugs for self-medication of allergic and other diseases now that newer second- generation nonsedating H1-antihistamines with superior risk/benefit ratios are widely available at competitive prices.