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Keywords:

  • allergic rhinitis;
  • CCR4;
  • nasal mucosa;
  • Th2-mediated inflammation

To cite this article: Banfield G, Watanabe H, Scadding G, Jacobson MR, Till SJ, Hall DA, Robinson DS, Lloyd CM, Nouri-Aria KT, Durham SR. CC Chemokine Receptor 4 (CCR4) in human allergen-induced late nasal responses. Allergy 2010; 65: 1126–1133.

Abstract

Background:  CC Chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is preferentially expressed on Th2 lymphocytes. CCR4-mediated inflammation may be important in the pathology of allergic rhinitis. Disruption of CCR4 – ligand interaction may abrogate allergen-induced inflammation.

Methods:  Sixteen allergic rhinitics and six nonatopic individuals underwent both allergen and control (diluent) nasal challenges. Symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow were recorded. Nasal biopsies were taken at 8 h post challenge. Sections were immunostained and examined by light or dual immunofluorescence microscopy for eosinophils, T-lymphocytes, CCR4+CD3+ and CXCR3+CD3+ cells and examined by in situ hybridization for CCR4, IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA+ cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from peripheral blood of nine normal donors and the CCR4+CD4+ cells assessed for actin polymerization in response to the CCR4 ligand macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) and the influence of a CCR4 antagonist tested.

Results:  Allergic rhinitics had increased early and late phase symptoms after allergen challenge compared to diluent; nonatopics did not respond to either challenge. Eosinophils, but not total numbers of CD3+ T cells, were increased in rhinitics following allergen challenge. In rhinitics, there was an increase in CCR4+CD3+ protein-positive cells relative to CXCR3+CD3+ cells; CCR4 mRNA+ cells were increased and IL-4 increased to a greater extent than IFN-γ. CCR4+CD4+ T cells responded to MDC in vitro, and this response was inhibited by the selective CCR4 antagonist.

Conclusion:  Lymphocyte CCR4 expression is closely associated with induction of human allergen-induced late nasal responses. Blocking CCR4-ligand interaction may provide a novel therapeutic approach in allergic disease.