• eosinophilic inflammation;
  • forkhead box P3;
  • GATA-3;
  • interleukin 5;
  • intermittent allergic rhinitis (IAR);
  • persistent allergic rhinitis (PER)

To cite this article: Liu F, Zhang J, Liu Y, Zhang N, Holtappels G, Lin P, Liu S, Bachert C. Inflammatory profiles in nasal mucosa of patients with persistent vs intermittent allergic rhinitis. Allergy 2010; 65: 1149–1157.


Background:  To date there is little information on the inflammatory profiles of patients suffering from persistent (PER) and intermittent allergic rhinitis (IAR). Also, it is not clear whether differences exist in eosinophilic inflammation and/or T-helper cell sub-populations and their markers. The aim of this study was to primarily evaluate the inflammatory profiles of patients with moderate/severe PER and IAR.

Methods:  Inferior nasal turbinate tissue was obtained from 12 PER, 12 IAR and 12 nonallergic nonrhinitic (control) patients, and symptoms (visual analogue scales, VAS) and impairment of life was monitored. All tissues were assessed for eosinophil and mast cell numbers by immunohistochemistry; IL-5, ECP and IgE concentrations by immunoassay; mRNA for transcription factors GATA-3, T-bet, FOXP3 and RORc by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; and IgE-induced release of LTC4/D4/E4 and PGD2in vitro.

Results:  Eosinophils and mast cells were significantly increased in patients with PER and patients with IAR compared to control subjects; by patients with PER demonstrating even significantly greater increase of both cell types than patients with IAR. Similarly, ECP IL-5, GATA-3 mRNA expression and IgE-induced release of LTC4/D4/E4 and PGD2 from mast cells were significantly increased in patients with PER compared to patients with IAR. In contrast, the expression of T-bet, FOXP3 or RORc mRNA was not significantly different in the PER, IAR or control patients.

Conclusion:  The findings from the present study suggest that PER is characterized by a significantly greater eosinophilic and predominantly Th2 cell-mediated nasal inflammatory profile compared to IAR.